The year of the[Messiah's]Birth is quite easy to ascertain- posted by Hawkeye
.......I assume you're asking, "how the year of the Birth is quite easy to ascertain"?
The time of the year was during the fall festivals (Tabernacles) for a host of reasons we won't bother with now. King Herod is the key to the entire mystery and his period of reign is easily confirmed by secular history. Yeshua was born during the days of King Herod [Matthew 2:1] and we also know it was near the time of Herod's death [Matthew 2:13-15].
Herod went to Rome during the winter "And thus did this man receive the Kingdom, having obtained it on the 184th Olympiad when Caius Domitus Calvinius was consul the second time and Caius Asinius Pollio (the first time)" [Josephus, Antiquities 14;14;5]
Olympiads were four years and were figured from July to July. The 184th Olympiad was July 44 B.C. to July 40 B.C. and Calvinius and Pollio were consuls in the year 714 AUC, which would have been 40 B.C. (AUC means from the founding of Rome) [Hand book of Biblical Chronology].
The calendar years for consuls were reckoned from January to January and when you combine this data with the July to July length of the Olympiads you can then figure out exactly when this occurred....within 6 months margin of error. In addition we are told that Herod's reign in Jerusalem began when the rigor of winter was over....in his third year since he had been made King at Rome [Josephus, Antiquities, 14;15;14].
But Herod was unable to take the city of Jerusalem until the summer when Marcus Agrippa and Cannanius Gallus were consuls of Rome, on the 185th Olympiad....in the third month on the solemnity of the fast [Josephus, Antiquities, 14:16;2-4]. The 185th Olympiad was from July 40 B.C. to July 36 B.C. and Agrippa and Gallus were consuls in the year 717 AUC.....the year 37 B.C. The "Fast" of the third month would have been Sivan 23 and Herod completed the conquest of the city in the summer of 37 B.C.
When you put all these facts together this is what emerges: Herod crowned in Rome January/March 40 B.C. and began reigning in Jerusalem a little over three and 1/3rd years later (37 B.C.). Herod died having reigned since he had put Antigonus to death....34 years, but 37 years since he had been declared King by the Romans [Josephus, Antiquities, 17;8;1]. Josephus also tells us that Antigonus was killed shortly after Herod took Jerusalem; [Josephus, Antiquities 14;16;4]. Herod began his reign in 40 B.C., reigned 37 years....so including the first year of his reign he would have died in 4 B.C.
Yeshua was born in 5 B.C. and began His ministry (30 years of age) [Luke 3:23] during the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius [Luke 3:1]. This is confusing to some as they do not consider the fact that Tiberius co-reigned with Augustus for two years. The key to this dispute is the Battle of Actium which took place during the 187th Olympiad in the seventh year of the reign of King Herod [Josephus, Antiquities 15;5;1-2]. This Olympiad would have been from July 32 B.C. to July 28 B.C. and Herod's 7th year was 31 B.C. to 30 B.C.
Augustus ruled 44 years from the victory at Actium ....the last two....jointly with Tiberius. Thus, the co-rulership began in 12 A.D. and the 15th year of Tiberius would have been 26/27 A.D.
During the first Passover of His ministry the Jews stated that this temple had been 46 years in the building [John 2:20]. The first Passover would have been 27 A.D.
[Josephus, Antiquities, 15;11;1] says: And now Herod in his eighteenth year of his reign (18 in Jerusalem/ 21 from his coronation in Rome) undertook a very great work....to build of himself the Temple of God. The 18th year of Herod's reign was 20 B.C./19 B.C. which was the first year of the building of the temple. This means the 46th year [John 2:20] would have been 27 A.D.
Yeshua celebrated three Passovers in scripture [John 2:13; 6:4; 13:1] so it assumed that He had a three and one half year ministry....being born during the fall festivals and crucified on Passover. The year according to my reckoning would be 30 A.D. and as you can see the crucifixion on Nisan 14 (Passover Preparation) Wednesday [Leviticus 23:5] would then allow the time prophesied [Matthew 12:40] for a Sabbath morning resurrection on Nisan 17.
The reason the Catholic/Protestant theology insists on 33 A.D is because Passover Preparation (Nisan 14) fell on a Friday that year and they could then back up their spurious story of a Friday afternoon/Sunday morning affair:
I just showed you how..... and since we know he was resurrected on a Sabbath morning we can back it up to a Tuesday night/Wednesday Nisan 14 to be the day of the crucifixion and 30 A.D. is the only one warranted by both the calendar and the chronology.
The fact that most people believe in a Sunday resurrection is simply because that's been the fairy tale offered by the main Stream Church for over 1700 years now. As you can see by reading the four gospel messages with a literal Greek translation......that's been just a silly assumption....fooling most everyone.