Biblical Hebrew

Initiating a discussion ....
Assuming interest in picking up where we left off last year when I recommended some resources by which you could pick up a working knowledge of the language, could you please post your translation of Gen 1:1-5 so I can see how you view the relationship between 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3-5, which was one of several points of disagreement in our interpretations of the Genesis creation account. Thanks.

Kind regards,
Jonathan
 
Assuming interest in picking up where we left off last year when I recommended some resources by which you could pick up a working knowledge of the language, could you please post your translation of Gen 1:1-5 so I can see how you view the relationship between 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3-5, which was one of several points of disagreement in our interpretations of the Genesis creation account. Thanks.

Kind regards,
Jonathan

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בְּרֵאשִׁית, בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ

B’resheet bara Elohim et ha shamyhim wa’haarets ( ‘et’ is a direct object marker )

1.) In beginning created God the heavens and the earth.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וְהָאָרֶץ, הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ, וְחֹשֶׁךְ, עַל-פְּנֵי תְהוֹם; וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים, מְרַחֶפֶת עַל-פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם

Wa’haarets hay'eta tohu wa bohu wa’choshek, al-paney tahawom Elohim, marachepet al-paney ha’mayim.

2.) And (Now) the earth (land) had existed (was) desolate and empty, and darkness over (upon) deep ocean, and Spirit of God moved over surface of the water.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים, יְהִי אוֹר; וַיְהִי-אוֹר

Waw’youmer Elohim yahiy wor waw’yahiy wor (waw + imperfect )

3.) And said God exist (shall be) light and light existed

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת-הָאוֹר, כִּי-טוֹב; וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים, בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ.

Waw’yuara Elohim (object marker) hawor biytov waw yuvadal Elohim beyn hawor wawuveyn he hoshek

4.) And saw God the light but (except) good (pleasing) and divided God between the light and between the darkness.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם, וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה; וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם אֶחָד.

Waw’yuakara Elohim layor yom wa lathoshk kara layalah wa yahiy tserev yom echad.

5.) And called God the light yom and the darkness proclaimed (called) night and existed (was) evening and existed (was, there had been ) morning yom one.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
 
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בְּרֵאשִׁית, בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ

B’resheet bara Elohim et ha shamyhim wa’haarets ( ‘et’ is a direct object marker )

1.) In beginning created God the heavens and the earth.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וְהָאָרֶץ, הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ, וְחֹשֶׁךְ, עַל-פְּנֵי תְהוֹם; וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים, מְרַחֶפֶת עַל-פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם

Wa’haarets hay'eta tohu wa bohu wa’choshek, al-paney tahawom Elohim, marachepet al-paney ha’mayim.

2.) And (Now) the earth (land) had existed (was) desolate and empty, and darkness over (upon) deep ocean, and Spirit of God moved over surface of the water.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים, יְהִי אוֹר; וַיְהִי-אוֹר

Waw’youmer Elohim yahiy wor waw’yahiy wor (waw + imperfect )

3.) And said God exist (shall be) light and light existed

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת-הָאוֹר, כִּי-טוֹב; וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים, בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ.

Waw’yuara Elohim (object marker) hawor biytov waw yuvadal Elohim beyn hawor wawuveyn he hoshek

4.) And saw God the light but (except) good (pleasing) and divided God between the light and between the darkness.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם, וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה; וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם אֶחָד.

Waw’yuakara Elohim layor yom wa lathoshk kara layalah wa yahiy tserev yom echad.

5.) And called God the light yom and the darkness proclaimed (called) night and existed (was) evening and existed (was, there had been ) morning yom one.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Just curious why you didn't translate "yom"?
 
Just curious why you didn't translate "yom"?

yom has different meanings depending on the context. In this case yom is the period of solar illumination ( 12 hours ). From a planetary perspective darkness and light occurs simultaneously. "and God called the light yom"

Biblically, the first creation day was set in motion with God saying “Let there be light”. Here, the time between God’s command, and created light that propagates to the atmosphere is unstated. It may have gradually increased in radiance or it may have arrived at its maximum level of intensity. What remains is stated in verse five where night coexists with the day.

Day and Night terminal.JPG


Day and night simultaneously

Since God called the light yom here, I call it yom too.
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בְּרֵאשִׁית, בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ

B’resheet bara Elohim et ha shamyhim wa’haarets ( ‘et’ is a direct object marker )

1.) In beginning created God the heavens and the earth.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וְהָאָרֶץ, הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ, וְחֹשֶׁךְ, עַל-פְּנֵי תְהוֹם; וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים, מְרַחֶפֶת עַל-פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם

Wa’haarets hay'eta tohu wa bohu wa’choshek, al-paney tahawom Elohim, marachepet al-paney ha’mayim.

2.) And (Now) the earth (land) had existed (was) desolate and empty, and darkness over (upon) deep ocean, and Spirit of God moved over surface of the water.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים, יְהִי אוֹר; וַיְהִי-אוֹר

Waw’youmer Elohim yahiy wor waw’yahiy wor (waw + imperfect )

3.) And said God exist (shall be) light and light existed

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת-הָאוֹר, כִּי-טוֹב; וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים, בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ.

Waw’yuara Elohim (object marker) hawor biytov waw yuvadal Elohim beyn hawor wawuveyn he hoshek

4.) And saw God the light but (except) good (pleasing) and divided God between the light and between the darkness.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם, וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה; וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם אֶחָד.

Waw’yuakara Elohim layor yom wa lathoshk kara layalah wa yahiy tserev yom echad.

5.) And called God the light yom and the darkness proclaimed (called) night and existed (was) evening and existed (was, there had been ) morning yom one.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Alright, thanks for the effort... a few preliminary comments. This is not really a translation, but something akin to what one finds in an interlinear, peppered with some transliteration (ie. yom) and inline alternatives that make for a slavish and difficult read... this suggests you are still at an early stage in your acquisition of the language --- there is nothing wrong with that provided you have a realistic grasp of your progress thus far and be open to correction from those with far more experience. With respect to the pronunciation, there's a lot of work still needed and there are a number of letter misrecognitions going on... for example, reading ב for כ and offering the pronunciation biytov for כי־טוב when it should be kiytov or reading צ for ע and offering the pronunciation tserev for ערב when it should be erev. It is also clear from your recent response to Caroljeen's question that your interpretive biases are in full swing with a comment such as "God called the light yom here, I call it yom too" --- no, you need to make a contextually-sensitive choice in English for this exercise to actually be a translation. All you've done here is avoided the problem that the correct translation "day" here poses for your understanding of the text. Before I start going through this verse by verse, what lexicon are you using?

Kind regards,
Jonathan
 
Based in the Word of God, the source of the truth, on God's six Days of works for restitution of all things, and one Day of rest (a total of seven days) plus the Scriptures that teach that one Day is with the Lord as a thousand years (2 Pet.3:8) so MANKIND would go through six God Days of 1,000 years each (a total of 6,000 years) plus a Millennium of 1,000 years rest (now a total of 7,000 years).
2 Peter 3:v.8
8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one Day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one Day.
Psalms 90:v. 4 and 12
4 For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.
12 So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.
Genesis is a description of GOD's plan of restitution or restoration of all things after the rebellion in Eden. Acts 3:v.18 to 26

What did happen really? There was an eternity before the rebellion of the inhabitants of Eden that was ruled by a Cherub created to protect the Garden of GOD.(Ezekiel 28:v.14)

After the rebellion of Cherub and his followers (Epistle of Jude 1:v.6 combined with Genesis 6:v.2 among others Scriptures), the Earth was filled of corruption and over the years there were extreme darkness on Earth and also extreme corruption among the inhabitants- Gen. 6: v.2 - except Noah and his family, so he found grace in the eyes of the Lord. It was around year 1.556, or had passed one Day and half from the rebellion in Eden, and 1,056 years since the beginning of GOD's work in the first Day.

In fact, there was a gap of time in around 500 years or a half Day from the fall of the sons of GOD in the Garden of Eden until the moment in which GOD started to work at the evening of the first Day. "In Biblical times or in the beginning, the time was divided into two parts: Êrev (afternoon) and Bôker (morning). Érev starts at sunset, or according to Genesis 3: 8, "daybreak", and ended at sunrise, where Bôker starts. Even today Jews use the word "êrev" as a reference to the first part of the night that goes even after sunset"

That said, how to interpret Genesis 1?
Genesis 1 - The mystery of GOD's Plan revealed to Moses around 2.500 years after Adam -after two days and half, or 1.500 years BC - before Christ:
Genesis 1:v.1 onwards; - 1 - In the beginning, God created the heavens(four(4) heavens) and the earth.
The mystery of Genesis - that is a revelation of God's plan of restoration of all things which had been destroyed times ago in the God's Garden - the Garden of Eden - , even the restoration of MAN that God had made to live in Eden.

What is interesting and wonderful is the fact that God revealed this mystery to Moses only around 2,500 years or two Days and half, after He had started His works of restoration. This is the first detail that I pick out to comment and emphasize.

Therefore, when God revealed Genesis to Moses, God had already made all His works of the 1st Day, and of the 2nd Day, so 2,000 years of work, bec ause there was a gap of 500 years from Eden to the start of God's works, right? (two Days -2,000 years- but there is a gap of 500 years from the events occurred in the Garden of Eden until GOD starts His works of the first Day, this which I will try to explain further below.
Another detail that I highlight in Genesis is when God finished His works of the first Day, as He revealed to Moses.

In fact, literally GOD started to work from the middle of the first Day, that was in the evening (afternoon), and finished in the morning of the next Day, and were the FIRST Day (of 1,000 years of work), as is written in the verse 5, right?

That said, a third detail arises: There was a gap of 500 years from Eden and the beginning/ starting of God's work of restoration-Genesis 1.
On the other words, the works of FIRST Day of God's creation was from year 500 to 1500. In that occasion or around 1,500 years of Gods' works, Noah was about 444 years old, and when he was 500 years old, Noah started to build the Ark for his salvation and his family, as God's had commanded him. And in the same occasion or period, God's children ruled by a Cherub in Eden had become completely corrupted as is written in Genesis 6- as God revealed to Moses after around 2.500 years.

In accord Scriptures, the Flood occurred around year 1656, yes, Scriptures prove it. Therefore, the 1st Day of God's works had ended, and the 2nd started from around 1,500, in the exact time of Noah, and finished in the year 2,500, even in the time of Moses, as God revealed to Moses. I think this marvelous.

Later, after the Flood, or about 2,080 years of works, as GOD revealed to Moses, He called Abram, because the Most High God had planned to form - to create - a nation for Himself exclusively. Abram was the God's chosen, and from the seed of Abram, God Almighty would go to work and executing His plan in to have a peculiar nation for Himself. Then from Abraham and Sara GOD made be born Isaac, and from Isaac, Jacob, and from Jacob his twelve sons. Time after Jacob and family went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons, and in the Egypt the Lord God - in continuation of His works of the second Day - made them as the stars of heaven in multitude, and then was born Moses around 427 years after Abraham, or around year 2,500 of God's works in His Plan of restoration, that is in the middle of the third Day, i.e. from 2,000 to 3,000 years of works.

Note that Moses wrote every things GOD revealed unto him, i.e. all works He had made since the FIRST Day, lets say, from year zero.
But the most important detail GOD revealed to Moses is about the beginning. Genesis 1:1 - In the beginning, God created the heavens (four(4) heavens) and the earth, that is, in JESUS God created the heavens and the earth; without JESUS was not any thing made that was made, right?

Hebrews 1:v.1-2
- 1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, -
- 2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
John 1:v.3 All things were made by Him-by JESUS-; and without Him-without JESUS- was not any thing made that was made.
Why did God say to Moses as is written in Genesis 1:1-"in the beginning", and not "in JESUS"? Yes, why?
Now, now, it because the name of JESUS could not be revealed in that moment, or in that occasion, evidently. In the beginning -JESUS- was the Word, and the Word was God, and was with God-JESUS.

In fact, the NAME of JESUS would be revealed only and only in the fourth Day, or after 4,000 years of creation, as God said to Moses, and Moses spoke of JESUS in the verse 16, not by NAME but as the Greater Light. Greater Light has nothing to do with the sun of a 24hours day, and the Lesser Light has nothing to do with the moon that receives light from the sun to be visible. Spiritually, the Lesser Light is the person of Holy Spirit- he receives light of the Greater Light-JESUS-, as said JESUS in John 16:v.12-15, right? Check it out.

The heavens

Again: "In the beginning God created heavens...", yes, in JESUS He created the 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd heavens, and the fourth heaven, that is the heaven of the heavens. However, UNTIL TODAY , until this present time, God-JESUS- made ONLY the first two heavens, in fact, two heavenly places have already been planted by GOD here on Earth (Isaiah 51:v.16 and 40:v.22) until the present time. The next will be the third heaven, the Kingdom of God(Luke 20:v.35-36 and Revelation 11:v.15 to 18. Check it out)
THIRD HEAVEN
The third heaven, which was visited by the Apostle Paul, it is the next heaven, that is the next celestial environment, the environment of the Kingdom of God, that will be still established or planted here in the Earth-1Cor.15:v.24-26 and Revelation 11:v.15. Check it out. JESUS said: Luke 20:v.35-36: 35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage: 36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

What will happen from now on?
- Now see, the first two heavenly places - the Old and New Covenants- will be DISSOLVED or DISMANTLED in the days ahead -2Peter 3:v.7 and 11-13;
- The Kingdom of God will be"planted"/established in the earth (Revelation 5:v.10; 11:v.15-18 among others);
- The heaven of the heavens will be established or planted only after the Millennium of Christ and will be Eternal. Revelation 20:v.7-15;
- Satan will be cast into the bottomless pit that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years be fulfilled;
- And so on
In my view, we are already living in the beginning of the seventh and last Day, or in the beginning of the first century of the seventh and last millennium, the millennium of Christ, the millennium of Judgment, the Judgment Seat of Christ, and the millennium of Vengeance-2 Thessalonians 1:v.7-12.

May our God bless and keep us, and give us His protection

Now unto the King Eternal, Immortal, Invisible(the Word is God), the only Wise God, be Honor and Glory for ever and ever. Amen.
 
... GOD created the HEAVENS ...
Isaiah 40:v.21-22

21 Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? - 22 It is He that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the HEAVENS as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a TENT to dwell in:
Well, there are 4 heavens, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd heavens, and the heaven of the heavens, but UNTIL THE CURRENT TIME were created only the first two heavens, I mean the 1st and the 2nd heavens, the 3rd HEAVEN is the next to be established, rather, to be planted, and both FIRST and SECOND will be DISSOLVED henceforward-(2Peter 3:v.7 and 11-13). The third heaven, where Paul Apostle was and knew it, it will be established or planted in this seventh and last millennium, or seventh and last Day, the Lord's Day, as said JESUS ; Luke 20:v.35-36. Check it. After this millennium, I mean the current millennium, will be a new War against Satan, and then will be established the heaven of the heavens for ever and ever, and the Eternity will start. Rev.20:v. 7-15

The FIRST and SECOND HEAVENS,and the earth which are that are now- 2Pe.3:v.7and11-13.

7 But the heavens and the earth, which are now (see, they remained since two thousand years ago), by the same Word-Word of GOD-are kept in store, reserved unto FIRE against this Day of Judgment (the seventh and last Day-the Lord's Day) and perdition of ungodly men.
11 Seeing then that all these things shall be DISSOLVED, what manner of persons ought ye to be in all holy conversation and godliness,
12 Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the Day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be DISSOLVED, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat;
13 Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for NEW HEAVENS (the 3rd heaven and the heaven of the heavens) and a new earth (small letter-it has nothing to do with the Planet Earth), wherein dwelleth righteousness. - New Israel - ... and the earth.-earth is the dry land,the clay.

Verse 2-And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.(here GOD calleth this thing which still be not as though it was).

Questions:
Question 1) Was GOD speaking of the geometric form of the earth-the dry land-He had created and placed it in the Universe?
If it was, it has not any sense to say the "earth was placed in the Universe without form". Once the earth was already created, but was without form, then Scripture is not speaking on geometric sense, course, and also is not saying of the creation of the Planet Earth, the real fact here is another.
So Scripture is revealing another thing in this first moment of this analysed point. There's a mystery, surely. In fact a profound enigma to be deciphered, I like to decipher biblical enigmas, but by the Bible, course.

Question 2) Why the created earth, the dry land, was without a geometric form?
Well, it is evident that GOD was not speaking of the Planet Earth placed in the Universe billions years ago. By the way, even the own GOD has several questions for all of us- Job 38:v.4 to 7:
4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.
5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?
6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner STONE thereof;
7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the SONS of God shouted for joy?

Question 3) So what was GOD really revealing to Moses in Genesis 1:v.1 about the earth, as is revealed in the verses of above Job?
Well, there was a multitude of GOD's sons in the garden of Eden. By the way, there was even a ruller in Eden. They lived there for billions of years. Where was the Garden of God? In the Planet Earth of course. After the rebellion in Eden by the ruller and his followers, GOD-the Word is GOD-planned to restore ALL THINGS as is written in Genesis.

Question 4) What was the spiritual environment of the Planet Earth(like today, for example), after the rebellion in Eden?
Well, there was only and only darkness in whole Earth, the earth was really without form and avoid, this picture means the Planet Earth was in total chaos spiritually (GOD is Spirit), then GOD said: Let there be light. How many YEARS had passade when GOD said: Let there be light? It was in the period of evening of the FIRST Day of GOD's work. We are not speaking of magic, GOD is not a magic according humam thoughts, in fact GOD makes to happen. There was light from that moment ahead, after many years the light was shining, as we can see by the biblical Chronology -Genesis 5:1to32- even Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him, as GOD revealed to Moses after around 2.500 years or 1.500 B.C. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. In the year 1.056 after Adam was born Noah-Genesis 5:v.29- and all the earth was corrupted. God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. In this time, the earth was completly without form and void, i.e. the nation of Israel was going to be formed, it was still in embryo, it was formless and empty, was non-existent. The existence of the earth - the nation of Israel, the dry land - occurred only after get out from Egypt to the Promised Land. The entire population to be freed from Pharaoh's yoke was empty, they still did not know the Word of God, the Law and the Prophets.
 
Alright, thanks for the effort... a few preliminary comments. This is not really a translation, but something akin to what one finds in an interlinear, peppered with some transliteration (ie. yom) and inline alternatives that make for a slavish and difficult read... this suggests you are still at an early stage in your acquisition of the language --- there is nothing wrong with that provided you have a realistic grasp of your progress thus far and be open to correction from those with far more experience. With respect to the pronunciation, there's a lot of work still needed and there are a number of letter misrecognitions going on... for example, reading ב for כ and offering the pronunciation biytov for כי־טוב when it should be kiytov or reading צ for ע and offering the pronunciation tserev for ערב when it should be erev. It is also clear from your recent response to Caroljeen's question that your interpretive biases are in full swing with a comment such as "God called the light yom here, I call it yom too" --- no, you need to make a contextually-sensitive choice in English for this exercise to actually be a translation. All you've done here is avoided the problem that the correct translation "day" here poses for your understanding of the text. Before I start going through this verse by verse, what lexicon are you using?

Kind regards,
Jonathan

A single lexicon that would cover all my requirements wasn't available, and I wasn't willing to fork out the money for a very good one. The primary lexicons that I used were the Hebrew grammar Pratico and Van Pelt lexicon, an older online lexicon entitled "A complete Hebrew-English pocket-dictionary to the Old Testament", and the lexicons provided in the Blue Letter Bible.

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Based in the Word of God, the source of the truth, on God's six Days of works for restitution of all things, and one Day of rest (a total of seven days) plus the Scriptures that teach that one Day is with the Lord as a thousand years (2 Pet.3:8) so MANKIND would go through six God Days of 1,000 years each (a total of 6,000 years) plus a Millennium of 1,000 years rest (now a total of 7,000 years).
2 Peter 3:v.8
8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one Day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one Day.
Psalms 90:v. 4 and 12
4 For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.
12 So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.
Genesis is a description of GOD's plan of restitution or restoration of all things after the rebellion in Eden. Acts 3:v.18 to 26

What did happen really? There was an eternity before the rebellion of the inhabitants of Eden that was ruled by a Cherub created to protect the Garden of GOD.(Ezekiel 28:v.14)

After the rebellion of Cherub and his followers (Epistle of Jude 1:v.6 combined with Genesis 6:v.2 among others Scriptures), the Earth was filled of corruption and over the years there were extreme darkness on Earth and also extreme corruption among the inhabitants- Gen. 6: v.2 - except Noah and his family, so he found grace in the eyes of the Lord. It was around year 1.556, or had passed one Day and half from the rebellion in Eden, and 1,056 years since the beginning of GOD's work in the first Day.

In fact, there was a gap of time in around 500 years or a half Day from the fall of the sons of GOD in the Garden of Eden until the moment in which GOD started to work at the evening of the first Day. "In Biblical times or in the beginning, the time was divided into two parts: Êrev (afternoon) and Bôker (morning). Érev starts at sunset, or according to Genesis 3: 8, "daybreak", and ended at sunrise, where Bôker starts. Even today Jews use the word "êrev" as a reference to the first part of the night that goes even after sunset"

That said, how to interpret Genesis 1?
Genesis 1 - The mystery of GOD's Plan revealed to Moses around 2.500 years after Adam -after two days and half, or 1.500 years BC - before Christ:
Genesis 1:v.1 onwards; - 1 - In the beginning, God created the heavens(four(4) heavens) and the earth.
The mystery of Genesis - that is a revelation of God's plan of restoration of all things which had been destroyed times ago in the God's Garden - the Garden of Eden - , even the restoration of MAN that God had made to live in Eden.

What is interesting and wonderful is the fact that God revealed this mystery to Moses only around 2,500 years or two Days and half, after He had started His works of restoration. This is the first detail that I pick out to comment and emphasize.

Therefore, when God revealed Genesis to Moses, God had already made all His works of the 1st Day, and of the 2nd Day, so 2,000 years of work, bec ause there was a gap of 500 years from Eden to the start of God's works, right? (two Days -2,000 years- but there is a gap of 500 years from the events occurred in the Garden of Eden until GOD starts His works of the first Day, this which I will try to explain further below.
Another detail that I highlight in Genesis is when God finished His works of the first Day, as He revealed to Moses.

In fact, literally GOD started to work from the middle of the first Day, that was in the evening (afternoon), and finished in the morning of the next Day, and were the FIRST Day (of 1,000 years of work), as is written in the verse 5, right?

That said, a third detail arises: There was a gap of 500 years from Eden and the beginning/ starting of God's work of restoration-Genesis 1.
On the other words, the works of FIRST Day of God's creation was from year 500 to 1500. In that occasion or around 1,500 years of Gods' works, Noah was about 444 years old, and when he was 500 years old, Noah started to build the Ark for his salvation and his family, as God's had commanded him. And in the same occasion or period, God's children ruled by a Cherub in Eden had become completely corrupted as is written in Genesis 6- as God revealed to Moses after around 2.500 years.

In accord Scriptures, the Flood occurred around year 1656, yes, Scriptures prove it. Therefore, the 1st Day of God's works had ended, and the 2nd started from around 1,500, in the exact time of Noah, and finished in the year 2,500, even in the time of Moses, as God revealed to Moses. I think this marvelous.

Later, after the Flood, or about 2,080 years of works, as GOD revealed to Moses, He called Abram, because the Most High God had planned to form - to create - a nation for Himself exclusively. Abram was the God's chosen, and from the seed of Abram, God Almighty would go to work and executing His plan in to have a peculiar nation for Himself. Then from Abraham and Sara GOD made be born Isaac, and from Isaac, Jacob, and from Jacob his twelve sons. Time after Jacob and family went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons, and in the Egypt the Lord God - in continuation of His works of the second Day - made them as the stars of heaven in multitude, and then was born Moses around 427 years after Abraham, or around year 2,500 of God's works in His Plan of restoration, that is in the middle of the third Day, i.e. from 2,000 to 3,000 years of works.

Note that Moses wrote every things GOD revealed unto him, i.e. all works He had made since the FIRST Day, lets say, from year zero.
But the most important detail GOD revealed to Moses is about the beginning. Genesis 1:1 - In the beginning, God created the heavens (four(4) heavens) and the earth, that is, in JESUS God created the heavens and the earth; without JESUS was not any thing made that was made, right?

Hebrews 1:v.1-2
- 1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, -
- 2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;
John 1:v.3 All things were made by Him-by JESUS-; and without Him-without JESUS- was not any thing made that was made.
Why did God say to Moses as is written in Genesis 1:1-"in the beginning", and not "in JESUS"? Yes, why?
Now, now, it because the name of JESUS could not be revealed in that moment, or in that occasion, evidently. In the beginning -JESUS- was the Word, and the Word was God, and was with God-JESUS.

In fact, the NAME of JESUS would be revealed only and only in the fourth Day, or after 4,000 years of creation, as God said to Moses, and Moses spoke of JESUS in the verse 16, not by NAME but as the Greater Light. Greater Light has nothing to do with the sun of a 24hours day, and the Lesser Light has nothing to do with the moon that receives light from the sun to be visible. Spiritually, the Lesser Light is the person of Holy Spirit- he receives light of the Greater Light-JESUS-, as said JESUS in John 16:v.12-15, right? Check it out.

The heavens

Again: "In the beginning God created heavens...", yes, in JESUS He created the 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd heavens, and the fourth heaven, that is the heaven of the heavens. However, UNTIL TODAY , until this present time, God-JESUS- made ONLY the first two heavens, in fact, two heavenly places have already been planted by GOD here on Earth (Isaiah 51:v.16 and 40:v.22) until the present time. The next will be the third heaven, the Kingdom of God(Luke 20:v.35-36 and Revelation 11:v.15 to 18. Check it out)
THIRD HEAVEN
The third heaven, which was visited by the Apostle Paul, it is the next heaven, that is the next celestial environment, the environment of the Kingdom of God, that will be still established or planted here in the Earth-1Cor.15:v.24-26 and Revelation 11:v.15. Check it out. JESUS said: Luke 20:v.35-36: 35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage: 36 Neither can they die any more: for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

What will happen from now on?
- Now see, the first two heavenly places - the Old and New Covenants- will be DISSOLVED or DISMANTLED in the days ahead -2Peter 3:v.7 and 11-13;
- The Kingdom of God will be"planted"/established in the earth (Revelation 5:v.10; 11:v.15-18 among others);
- The heaven of the heavens will be established or planted only after the Millennium of Christ and will be Eternal. Revelation 20:v.7-15;
- Satan will be cast into the bottomless pit that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years be fulfilled;
- And so on
In my view, we are already living in the beginning of the seventh and last Day, or in the beginning of the first century of the seventh and last millennium, the millennium of Christ, the millennium of Judgment, the Judgment Seat of Christ, and the millennium of Vengeance-2 Thessalonians 1:v.7-12.

May our God bless and keep us, and give us His protection

Now unto the King Eternal, Immortal, Invisible(the Word is God), the only Wise God, be Honor and Glory for ever and ever. Amen.
Hi Oseas.

Thanks for the overview.

Do you have any biblical Hebrew language skills?

___
 
A single lexicon that would cover all my requirements wasn't available, and I wasn't willing to fork out the money for a very good one. The primary lexicons that I used were the Hebrew grammar Pratico and Van Pelt lexicon, an older online lexicon entitled "A complete Hebrew-English pocket-dictionary to the Old Testament", and the lexicons provided in the Blue Letter Bible.
Alright... in the absence of a good lexicon, you are handicapping your efforts --- that is fine if all you want to do is play around with the text as a hobby. If you want an actual working knowledge of biblical Hebrew and to present your translations and views on them for serious consideration, however, investing in good resources is unavoidable.

Kind regards,
Jonathan
 
בְּרֵאשִׁית, בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם, וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ

B’resheet bara Elohim et ha shamyhim wa’haarets ( ‘et’ is a direct object marker )
OK, starting with the pronunciation... one thing I would stress is consistency in representing the various sounds. For example, if you want to represent the vocal shewa with ' then this needs to be done consistently --- you represent the first such occurrence in this manner (B'resheet) but not the second (wa'{?!}haarets; more on this word in a moment since there is a further problem with it).

Another example of inconsistency in this verse is representing hireq followed by yodh with "ee" in the first example (B'resheet) but simply with "i" in the second example (Elohim). My recommendation is the latter, represented by "ī" to distinguish these cases from when hireq is not followed by yodh.

The next issue is ignoring the difference between tav with or without the daghesh lene (ie. B'resheet instead of B'resheeth and et instead of eth). While this is common among Jews since this reflects a feature of modern Hebrew, I would caution against the practice since it will inevitably lead you to disregard the daghesh generally, as happens in the pronunciation you offer for another word in the verse (more on that in a moment).

Here is how I would render the pronunciation of the verse, which as a transliteration should be formally italicized and without capital letters:

berēshīth bara elohīm eth hashshamayim ve'eth ha'arets

You'll note that I represent vocal shewa with "e" and distinguish it from tsere represented with "ē". Distinguishing it from seghol and hateph seghol is not really necessary since the only real difference is on how quickly or strongly the same vowel sound is vocalized. I have incorporated the other points noted above and represented ו with "v" rather than "w" --- substituting the latter would be acceptable, provided it is done consistently, since there is disagreement among scholars on how the consonant was pronounced.

With respect to "ha shamyhim" vs "hashshamayim", you'll note first that my pronunciation is conjoined... prefixes and any words joined by maqqef need to be treated as a single unit in transliteration, which is important for which syllables are accented. Second, you'll see the "sh" duplicated, which represents the daghesh forte that I noted above has been missed. Third, the ending "ayim" is extremely important as it is something you should be able to immediately recognize signaling that the word is dual in form rather than simply plural (compare elohīm with shamayim).

With respect to the second direct object marker, a transliteration for it appears to be missing altogether as you move directly from the conjunctive vav to the noun --- and when you have either aleph or ayin following a vowel sound, it is customary to insert ' to flag that the vowels are not to be treated as a diphthong, but as two distinct sounds (particularly with ayin which has a sound of its own though one difficult for English speakers to replicate). Thus ve'eth and ha'arets for the final two words of the verse.

In beginning created God the heavens and the earth.
This "translation" is, as noted in my previous post, akin to what one finds in an interlinear... it replicates word order that is not standard English --- representing the text in the target language's vernacular, however, is the primary goal of any good translation, otherwise it is rendered only partially intelligible for the intended audience.

With that in mind, there are two key problems above. First, while you have correctly identified the shewa underneath the prefixed preposition as indicating the word following it is indefinite (ie. "in beginning"), this is not proper English so you have to make some choices: (1) whether you accept the shewa pointing of the Masoretes or whether you conjecture qamets in its place, and if you opt for the former, (2) whether you carry that indefiniteness forward into English by means of "a" or infer, based on other grammatical features in the clause, that "the" is still the intended meaning. Second, while Hebrew verbs typically precede the subjects to which they are related (we will encounter an exception to this in Gen 1:2), the opposite is true in English so proper word order in the target language should factor into your translation.

I am only posting on weekends at the moment so I will not be back to this thread until next Friday (or thereabouts). In the meantime, perhaps you could do two things... first, take another crack at the pronunciation of the next verse (1:2) by factoring in my feedback on this subject, and second, redo your translation of Gen 1:1 with the two points I noted above addressed along with a defense of your choice for an indefinite (ie. "in a beginning") or definite (ie. "in the beginning") temporal clause.

Kind regards,
Jonathan
 
Based in the Word of God, the source of the truth, on God's six Days of works for restitution of all things, and one Day of rest (a total of seven days) plus the Scriptures that teach that one Day is with the Lord as a thousand years (2 Pet.3:8) so MANKIND would go through six God Days of 1,000 years each (a total of 6,000 years) plus a Millennium of 1,000 years rest (now a total of 7,000 years).

There is a CARM centric history behind this particular thread that is intended to focus on biblical Hebrew. Since there are differences in interpretation within the Christian community as well as the secular world about meaning in the Genesis account of creation that primarily converge on questions of "when", these questions necessarily involve meaning in the translation of biblical Hebrew.

Indeed 2 Peter 3:8 reflects the Old Testament recognition of time in God's reference frame.

"For a thousand years in Your sight
Are like yesterday when it is past,
And like a watch in the night." ( Psalm 90:4, NKJV, like yom: כְּיוֹם )

In a nutshell, this interpretation you have described above is parallel to the standard young earth model that was advocated by the founder of modern creation science Henry Morris as depicted in his book "The Genesis record" in 1976. In this view the creative events that span Genesis 1:3 through Genesis 1:31 is 6*24 hours = 144 hours where all the events take place a very rapid pace (warp speed)*. Further, Genesis 1:1 - Genesis 1:2 are considered instantaneous events primarily because there are no temporal restrictions provided in the text for these events even though the text indicates that the Holy Spirit "hovers" or "broods" over the face of the deep water.

@En Hakkore utilizes a completely separate approach where Genesis 1:1 is treated as a summary of the creative events that follow instead of treating the narrative as an event. This interpretation is critical as it directly impacts how readers view the text. Specifically, this interpretation removes the doctrine of creation "ex nihilo".

Understanding biblical Hebrew helps resolve meaning imposed by Hebrew verbs.

____
* Augustine in 411 AD, "city of God", "of what fashion of days these were, it either is exceedingly hard or altogether impossible to think, much more to speak."

2 Peter 3:v.8
8 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one Day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one Day.
Psalms 90:v. 4 and 12
4 For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.
12 So teach us to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom.
:cool:


שָׁלוֹם - shalom
___
 
... GOD created the HEAVENS ...
Isaiah 40:v.21-22

21 Have ye not known? have ye not heard? hath it not been told you from the beginning? have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? - 22 It is He that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the HEAVENS as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a TENT to dwell in:
Well, there are 4 heavens, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd heavens, and the heaven of the heavens, but UNTIL THE CURRENT TIME were created only the first two heavens, I mean the 1st and the 2nd heavens, the 3rd HEAVEN is the next to be established, rather, to be planted, and both FIRST and SECOND will be DISSOLVED henceforward-(2Peter 3:v.7 and 11-13). The third heaven, where Paul Apostle was and knew it, it will be established or planted in this seventh and last millennium, or seventh and last Day, the Lord's Day, as said JESUS ; Luke 20:v.35-36. Check it. After this millennium, I mean the current millennium, will be a new War against Satan, and then will be established the heaven of the heavens for ever and ever, and the Eternity will start. Rev.20:v. 7-15

The FIRST and SECOND HEAVENS,and the earth which are that are now- 2Pe.3:v.7and11-13.

7 But the heavens and the earth, which are now (see, they remained since two thousand years ago), by the same Word-Word of GOD-are kept in store, reserved unto FIRE against this Day of Judgment (the seventh and last Day-the Lord's Day) and perdition of ungodly men.
11 Seeing then that all these things shall be DISSOLVED, what manner of persons ought ye to be in all holy conversation and godliness,
12 Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the Day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be DISSOLVED, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat;
13 Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for NEW HEAVENS (the 3rd heaven and the heaven of the heavens) and a new earth (small letter-it has nothing to do with the Planet Earth), wherein dwelleth righteousness. - New Israel - ... and the earth.-earth is the dry land,the clay.

Verse 2-And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.(here GOD calleth this thing which still be not as though it was).

Questions:
Question 1) Was GOD speaking of the geometric form of the earth-the dry land-He had created and placed it in the Universe?
If it was, it has not any sense to say the "earth was placed in the Universe without form". Once the earth was already created, but was without form, then Scripture is not speaking on geometric sense, course, and also is not saying of the creation of the Planet Earth, the real fact here is another.
So Scripture is revealing another thing in this first moment of this analysed point. There's a mystery, surely. In fact a profound enigma to be deciphered, I like to decipher biblical enigmas, but by the Bible, course.

Question 2) Why the created earth, the dry land, was without a geometric form?
Well, it is evident that GOD was not speaking of the Planet Earth placed in the Universe billions years ago. By the way, even the own GOD has several questions for all of us- Job 38:v.4 to 7:
4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.
5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?
6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner STONE thereof;
7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the SONS of God shouted for joy?

Question 3) So what was GOD really revealing to Moses in Genesis 1:v.1 about the earth, as is revealed in the verses of above Job?
Well, there was a multitude of GOD's sons in the garden of Eden. By the way, there was even a ruller in Eden. They lived there for billions of years. Where was the Garden of God? In the Planet Earth of course. After the rebellion in Eden by the ruller and his followers, GOD-the Word is GOD-planned to restore ALL THINGS as is written in Genesis.

Question 4) What was the spiritual environment of the Planet Earth(like today, for example), after the rebellion in Eden?
Well, there was only and only darkness in whole Earth, the earth was really without form and avoid, this picture means the Planet Earth was in total chaos spiritually (GOD is Spirit), then GOD said: Let there be light. How many YEARS had passade when GOD said: Let there be light? It was in the period of evening of the FIRST Day of GOD's work. We are not speaking of magic, GOD is not a magic according humam thoughts, in fact GOD makes to happen. There was light from that moment ahead, after many years the light was shining, as we can see by the biblical Chronology -Genesis 5:1to32- even Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him, as GOD revealed to Moses after around 2.500 years or 1.500 B.C. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. In the year 1.056 after Adam was born Noah-Genesis 5:v.29- and all the earth was corrupted. God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. In this time, the earth was completly without form and void, i.e. the nation of Israel was going to be formed, it was still in embryo, it was formless and empty, was non-existent. The existence of the earth - the nation of Israel, the dry land - occurred only after get out from Egypt to the Promised Land. The entire population to be freed from Pharaoh's yoke was empty, they still did not know the Word of God, the Law and the Prophets.

There is a lot to unpack here. Welcome to CARM Oseas! :)

Inertia
___
 
There is a CARM centric history behind this particular thread that is intended to focus on biblical Hebrew. Since there are differences in interpretation within the Christian community as well as the secular world about meaning in the Genesis account of creation that primarily converge on questions of "when", these questions necessarily involve meaning in the translation of biblical Hebrew.

Indeed 2 Peter 3:8 reflects the Old Testament recognition of time in God's reference frame.

"For a thousand years in Your sight
Are like yesterday when it is past,
And like a watch in the night." ( Psalm 90:4, NKJV, like yom: כְּיוֹם )

In a nutshell, this interpretation you have described above is parallel to the standard young earth model that was advocated by the founder of modern creation science Henry Morris as depicted in his book "The Genesis record" in 1976. In this view the creative events that span Genesis 1:3 through Genesis 1:31 is 6*24 hours = 144 hours where all the events take place a very rapid pace (warp speed)*. Further, Genesis 1:1 - Genesis 1:2 are considered instantaneous events primarily because there are no temporal restrictions provided in the text for these events even though the text indicates that the Holy Spirit "hovers" or "broods" over the face of the deep water.

@En Hakkore utilizes a completely separate approach where Genesis 1:1 is treated as a summary of the creative events that follow instead of treating the narrative as an event. This interpretation is critical as it directly impacts how readers view the text. Specifically, this interpretation removes the doctrine of creation "ex nihilo".

Understanding biblical Hebrew helps resolve meaning imposed by Hebrew verbs.

____
* Augustine in 411 AD, "city of God", "of what fashion of days these were, it either is exceedingly hard or altogether impossible to think, much more to speak."


:cool:



שָׁלוֹם - shalom
___

Time is relative but the context of 2 Peter 3:8 is really about God's patience and longsuffering, if you read the following verse. It doesn't literally mean 1 day = 1000 years according to God.

We know from Einstein that time is relative and that concept does not conflict with the Bible. This video explains relativity theory and the implications in plain English.


Jump to 2:22 where an astronaut observes passengers in a 10-light years wide spaceship travelling at lightspeed. According to the passengers, it took 10 years for light to travel from one side of the ship to the other. According to the astronaut, it took 14 years for light to travel. The passengers say 10 years passed and the astronaut say 14 years passed. Who is right? According to Einstein's theory both are right.

Now jump to 3:33. If you move at lightspeed then time literally stops for you. Recall how Superman saw everyone as statues except for the Flash in the Justice League movie. Certainly God can perform a very lengthy process of creation ex nihilo at near-lightspeeds while mere days pass for us humans. From the near-lightspeed view a long time passed, but from the human view mere days passed. Who is right? Relatively speaking both are right.
 
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Time is relative but the context of 2 Peter 3:8 is really about God's patience and longsuffering, if you read the following verse. It doesn't literally mean 1 day = 1000 years according to God.

We know from Einstein that time is relative and that concept does not conflict with the Bible. This video explains relativity theory and the implications in plain English.


Jump to 2:22 where an astronaut observes passengers in a 10-light years wide spaceship travelling at lightspeed. According to the passengers, it took 10 years for light to travel from one side of the ship to the other. According to the astronaut, it took 14 years for light to travel. The passengers say 10 years passed and the astronaut say 14 years passed. Who is right? According to Einstein's theory both are right.

Now jump to 3:33. If you move at lightspeed then time literally stops for you. Recall how Superman saw everyone as statues except for the Flash in the Justice League movie. Certainly God can perform a very lengthy process of creation ex nihilo at near-lightspeeds while mere days pass for us humans. From the near-lightspeed view a long time passed, but from the human view mere days passed. Who is right? Relatively speaking both are right.

Hi vbj.

Thank you very much for the video, however it is unnecessary since I understand relativity as I have a degree in Physics.

Okay, 2 Peter 3:5-9 (in context)

"For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, by which the world that then existed perished, being flooded with water. But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.

But, beloved, do not forget this one thing, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.

The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance." (NKJV)

Longsuffering indeed. The illustration is also couched in a creation narrative where Peter asks his audience not to forget what was written in Psalm 90:4.

כִּי אֶלֶף שָׁנִים, בְּעֵינֶיךָ-- כְּיוֹם אֶתְמוֹל, כִּי יַעֲבֹר; וְאַשְׁמוּרָה בַלָּיְלָה.

ki elep shanim bayin bayom ethamol ki yaavor ashamurah valayalah

for one thousand years in my eyes like day yesterday when it is past and a watch in night

___
 
OK, starting with the pronunciation... one thing I would stress is consistency in representing the various sounds. For example, if you want to represent the vocal shewa with ' then this needs to be done consistently --- you represent the first such occurrence in this manner (B'resheet) but not the second (wa'{?!}haarets; more on this word in a moment since there is a further problem with it).

Another example of inconsistency in this verse is representing hireq followed by yodh with "ee" in the first example (B'resheet) but simply with "i" in the second example (Elohim). My recommendation is the latter, represented by "ī" to distinguish these cases from when hireq is not followed by yodh.

The next issue is ignoring the difference between tav with or without the daghesh lene (ie. B'resheet instead of B'resheeth and et instead of eth). While this is common among Jews since this reflects a feature of modern Hebrew, I would caution against the practice since it will inevitably lead you to disregard the daghesh generally, as happens in the pronunciation you offer for another word in the verse (more on that in a moment).

Here is how I would render the pronunciation of the verse, which as a transliteration should be formally italicized and without capital letters:

berēshīth bara elohīm eth hashshamayim ve'eth ha'arets

You'll note that I represent vocal shewa with "e" and distinguish it from tsere represented with "ē". Distinguishing it from seghol and hateph seghol is not really necessary since the only real difference is on how quickly or strongly the same vowel sound is vocalized. I have incorporated the other points noted above and represented ו with "v" rather than "w" --- substituting the latter would be acceptable, provided it is done consistently, since there is disagreement among scholars on how the consonant was pronounced.

With respect to "ha shamyhim" vs "hashshamayim", you'll note first that my pronunciation is conjoined... prefixes and any words joined by maqqef need to be treated as a single unit in transliteration, which is important for which syllables are accented. Second, you'll see the "sh" duplicated, which represents the daghesh forte that I noted above has been missed. Third, the ending "ayim" is extremely important as it is something you should be able to immediately recognize signaling that the word is dual in form rather than simply plural (compare elohīm with shamayim).

With respect to the second direct object marker, a transliteration for it appears to be missing altogether as you move directly from the conjunctive vav to the noun --- and when you have either aleph or ayin following a vowel sound, it is customary to insert ' to flag that the vowels are not to be treated as a diphthong, but as two distinct sounds (particularly with ayin which has a sound of its own though one difficult for English speakers to replicate). Thus ve'eth and ha'arets for the final two words of the verse.


This "translation" is, as noted in my previous post, akin to what one finds in an interlinear... it replicates word order that is not standard English --- representing the text in the target language's vernacular, however, is the primary goal of any good translation, otherwise it is rendered only partially intelligible for the intended audience.

With that in mind, there are two key problems above. First, while you have correctly identified the shewa underneath the prefixed preposition as indicating the word following it is indefinite (ie. "in beginning"), this is not proper English so you have to make some choices: (1) whether you accept the shewa pointing of the Masoretes or whether you conjecture qamets in its place, and if you opt for the former, (2) whether you carry that indefiniteness forward into English by means of "a" or infer, based on other grammatical features in the clause, that "the" is still the intended meaning. Second, while Hebrew verbs typically precede the subjects to which they are related (we will encounter an exception to this in Gen 1:2), the opposite is true in English so proper word order in the target language should factor into your translation.

I am only posting on weekends at the moment so I will not be back to this thread until next Friday (or thereabouts). In the meantime, perhaps you could do two things... first, take another crack at the pronunciation of the next verse (1:2) by factoring in my feedback on this subject, and second, redo your translation of Gen 1:1 with the two points I noted above addressed along with a defense of your choice for an indefinite (ie. "in a beginning") or definite (ie. "in the beginning") temporal clause.

Kind regards,
Jonathan

This is very helpful. I will ask questions and reply as time allows.

___
 
Hi vbj.

Thank you very much for the video, however it is unnecessary since I understand relativity as I have a degree in Physics.

Many here don't have a physics background. They may not know that it's possible to get different age values of something (including age of the earth) that are all correct.
 
Many here don't have a physics background. They may not know that it's possible to get different age values of something (including age of the earth) that are all correct.

The word "all", much like the word "never" or "always" should be used with caution. Do you have any biblical Hebrew in your proverbial box of skill sets?

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The word "all", much like the word "never" or "always" should be used with caution. Do you have any biblical Hebrew in your proverbial box of skill sets?

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What I mean is a 5 billion years old earth can be created in 6 days because of time dilation, as an example. In fact, time dilation creationism is a theory, with more details here and here.

I know that the Hebrew yom can mean a day or unspecified length of time. There are many arguments about the length of yom. But one question not often asked is who is observing the mornings and evenings of Genesis 1? Man was not created until Genesis 1:26. It seems the observer could be someone looking from the outside at something like a time-lapse vision of the events.
 
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