Biblical Hebrew

Too much emphases is put on similar-sounding Hebrew words, take for example נחש, which as different meanings.

נחש
1. to practice divination (verb) H5172
2. divination, enchantment. H5173
3. copper, bronze H5174
5. serpent, snake H5175

This presents a semantic problem. Is a snake called נחש because its the colour of נחש "copper" or because snakes נחש "enchant". This is why the Ancient Greek language is important for understanding Phoenician vocabulary, which is written without vowels.

Dig and Dog have the same consonants, so if both these words are written דג, one could say, called דג "dog" because they דג "dig".


נחש
1. ἐκγοητεύω, γοητεύω ; bewitch, beguile
2. γοητεία ; witchcraft, jugglery, cheating
3. ἔχιδνα ; viper, constrictor snake
4. ὀφίδιον, Dim. of ὄφις (צפע, אפעה) ; snake, serpent
5. καυχός, Cretan for χαλκός ; copper
This doesn't answer anything. There is Spirit behind the scriptures that regenerate can understand.

Paul before conversion knew the Torah better than Peter, a mere fisherman. Yet after conversion he came to know his previous knowledge without the Spirit of Mashyach was bankrupt. So after conversion he and Peter had something in common.

One can use grammar, dictionaries or try to understand till the face turns blue but it's all useless unless Ruach haqodash helps in interpretation of scriptures.

See the Biblical Languages forum here at Carm, they have all different doctrines and don't even agree with one another.

Therefore, don't be too obsessive with grammar but rather seek help from God for understanding.
 
This doesn't answer anything. There is Spirit behind the scriptures that regenerate can understand.

Paul before conversion knew the Torah better than Peter, a mere fisherman. Yet after conversion he came to know his previous knowledge without the Spirit of Mashyach was bankrupt. So after conversion he and Peter had something in common.

One can use grammar, dictionaries or try to understand till the face turns blue but it's all useless unless Ruach haqodash helps in interpretation of scriptures.

See the Biblical Languages forum here at Carm, they have all different doctrines and don't even agree with one another.

Therefore, don't be too obsessive with grammar but rather seek help from God for understanding.

That is how ancient people thought about everything, for example θεός means "God" and the ἔνθεος meaning "full of the god, inspired, possessed", we get enthusiastic from this. Inspire is from Latin īnspīrō "breath in", so the Greek would be ἐμπνέω "breath in, breathed into my mind (i.e. inspired me with the thought).

Numbers 5:14
The spirit of jealousy (רוח־קנאה) come upon him.

This "spirit of jealousy" may also be interpreted as an entity, קנאה = Φθόνος "Phthonus", the personification (Demon) of jealousy and envy.

Exodus 28:3
I have filled with the spirit of wisdom (רוח חכמה)

חכמה is γνῶμα, γνῶσις 'Knowledge

Isaiah 29:10
the spirit of deep sleep (רוח תרדמה)

תרדמה καταδαρθών _ sleep

All makes sense when knowing these things.
 
That is how ancient people thought about everything, for example θεός means "God" and the ἔνθεος meaning "full of the god, inspired, possessed", we get enthusiastic from this. Inspire is from Latin īnspīrō "breath in", so the Greek would be ἐμπνέω "breath in, breathed into my mind (i.e. inspired me with the thought).

Numbers 5:14
The spirit of jealousy (רוח־קנאה) come upon him.

This "spirit of jealousy" may also be interpreted as an entity, קנאה = Φθόνος "Phthonus", the personification (Demon) of jealousy and envy.

Exodus 28:3
I have filled with the spirit of wisdom (רוח חכמה)

חכמה is γνῶμα, γνῶσις 'Knowledge

Isaiah 29:10
the spirit of deep sleep (רוח תרדמה)

תרדמה καταδαρθών _ sleep

All makes sense when knowing these things.
My friend ancient people knew their language in Paleo Hebrew. Later on the script changed and finally in 11th Century Masoretes introduced vowel pointings. Greek was after Babylon and Persia. At that time the influence of Greek came to being and then we have LXX. The New Testament Greek is a testing program for believers to come back to their Hebraic heritage. If you compare with modern languages Greek is ancient. But if you compare with Hebrew Greek is modern.

It's the Spirit behind the scriptures that counts and not languages. That's the reason for the gift of tongues in the Book of Acts as Israel was in dispersion. They spoke many languages other than Greek. You just have to read the book of Acts 2. That's the reason there were many Synagogues outside Judea. But all these people of God despite language barriers came to Jerusalem in their Hebraic heritage. Later as they joined the NT Assemblies they were under the Apostles' teaching.

Since NT we have in Greek texts it must be compared to Hebrew OT text. Or else NT can never be understood- even Eschatology.

That's why I asked you the difference between two different words in Hebrew for Serpent as signs for Israel and Egypt. This connects to Eschatology in the NT which is very important to understand. Your grammar lessons will not help in understanding this matter but only by the Spirit behind the scriptures.
 
Classical Greek and Hebrew synchronised.

Genesis 10:18
נפצו משפחות הכנעני
διέφυσαν σπέρματα φοινίκων
The families of Phoenicians dispersed

Jeremiah 50:17
שה פזורה ישראל
ὄις διασπείρων Ισραηλ
Israel
is a scattered sheep

Gen 25:12
שפחת שרה לאברהם
θεράπνη τάς Σάρρας ἐς Ἅβραμον
handmaid of Sarah unto Abraham

Ruth 3:9
אנכי רות אמתך
ἐγώγε Ῥούθη δμωή σου
I , Ruth your servant

Genesis 25:12
ישמעאל אלה תלדת
τάσδε
βλάσται Ἰσμάηλου
These the children of Ishmael


שפחת means θεράπνη "handmaid" and משפחת means σπέρμα , the ρ drops out in both because of non-rhoticity, so two Hebrew words of apparent unknown etymology are solved.

Gen 20:1
ויסע משם אברהם ארצה הנגב
ὥδευσεν ἔνθεν Ἅβραμος ἔρασδε τόν νότον
Abraham travelled thence to the south country


Gen 45:2
ויתן את־קלו
ἔτεινεν τήν φωνήν αὐτοῦ
He strained his voice

The verb ויתן is untranslated in the King James
 
Genesis 18:21 ארדה־נא - I will go down now,

English uses the word "go" alongside the post-position "down". The Septuagint reads καταβὰς, a compound verb, κατά (Down) + βαίνω (Walk), and the Vulgate reads descendam, a compound of dē (Down) + scandere (ascend).

The Phoenician verb ירד is a compounds, it is κατέρχομαι (katérchomai) "go-down"

ארדה־נא = κατελεύσομαι νυν "I will go down now"

Genesis 15:12 השמש לבוא - "the sun set"

This phrase matches ἠέλιον δῦναι "the sun set" in Homer's Iliad.
https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:abo:tlg,0012,001:2:413&lang=original

Deuteronomy 9:18 ואתנפל - " I fell down " = προσέπεσον

προσπίπτω = התנפל ; fall upon a person's neck, embrace, supplicate

Judges 14:8 מפלת האריה - "Carcase of a Lion" = πτῶμα του θηρίου

πίπτω נפל > πτῶμα מפלת
- πτῶμα (LSJ) fallen body, corpse, carcase, freq. with gen., πτῶμα Ἑλένης, Ἐτεοκλέους, E.Or.1196, Ph.1697

Judges 20:23 הדריכהו = κατέτριψαν αὐτὸν "worn them out"
Deuteronomy 32:26 - אשביתה = καταπαύσω "I will put an end to"

κατα-παύω , poet. καππαύω = σάββατα

In Exodus 16:26, the word שבת is transliterated into σάββατα (LXX) sabbatum (Vulgate) , but the translation is κατάπαυσις "a putting to rest".
 
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Joshua 9:13 - these the skins of wine

Classical Greek → Biblical Hebrew → Biblical Greek
αἵδε νηδύες τοῦ οἴνουאלה נאדות הייοὗτοι οἱ ἀσκοὶ τοῦ οἴνου

These two nouns are synonyms, so both readings are correct, but νηδύες is feminine, as is נאדות, where-as ἀσκοὶ is masculine.

νηδύς - paunch, belly
ἀσκός - paunch, belly

Euripides, Bacchae 524-5
happy virgin, you once received the child of Zeus in your streams when
Zeus his father snatched him up from the immortal fire and saved him
in his thigh, crying out “Go, Dithyrambus, enter this my male womb

Gk. τάνδε βᾶθι νηδύν enter this my male womb

John 1:18
No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the womb of the Father

Indeed
 
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Genesis 2:1 כל־צבאם "all the host of them" (πᾶς ὁ κόσμος αὐτῶν)
2 Samuel 7:27 יהוה צבאות "Lord of Hosts" (κύριος σαβαωθ)

There is one Greek word that fits the semantics here, which is σῆμα , Dor. σᾶμα

In plural, σήματα means heavenly-bodies
- Deuteronomy 4:19 צבא השמים "heavenly bodies"

σημεία means military standard, a body of troops under one standard, the Roman manipulus
-
Judges 8:6 לצבאך = τα σημεία σου "thine armies"

1 Samuel 17:45 - יהוה צבאות אלהי מערכות
"Yahweh Sabaoth God of the battle-array?? (מערכות = παρατάξεως)

All the words here are feminine. יהוה צבאות אלה מערכות
cf. Athena Promachos (Ἀθηνᾶ Πρόμαχος) "Athena who fights in the front line"
 
Biblical Hebrew vocabulary really is Greek.

οἰκέω ישב to dwell → οἴκημα מושב dwelling place
ἵζω ישב to sit → ἵσμα מושב seat

1 Samuel 20:25 וישב המלך על־מושבו "King sat upon his seat"
εἷσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ ἵσμα αὐτοῦ

Genesis 10:3 מושבם "their dwelling place"
οἴκημα αὐτῶν

Ezra 10:2 ונשב נשים נכריות "lived in wedlock with country women"
συνῳκήσαμεν γυναῗκας ἐγχώριον

χρώννυμι
נכר to tinge, stain, defile
ἐγχώριος נכר of or for the country, rustic
ἐγχειρίζω נכר put into one's hands, entrust
ἐπικρύπτω התנכר disguise

γιγνώσκω, γνωρίζω נכר come to know, distinguish, recognize
γνώριμος מכר. well-known, acquaintance, friend
ἀναγνώρισις הכרה recognition

So in 2 Kings 12:5 מכרו translates into "his acquaintance"

Homer, Odyssey 16.1
"Eumaios, I hear footsteps; I suppose one of your men or some one of your acquaintance (γνώριμος) is coming here.

Genesis 42:8 ויכר יוסף את־אחיו Joseph knew his brethren
ἐγνώρισεν Ἰωσήφ τούς κασίας αὐτοῦ

Genesis 42:7 ויתנכר made himself strange
ἐπικρύπτεται
 
דבק διώκω pursue, chase
הדביק καταδιώκω follow hard upon, pursue closely

2 Samuel 1:6 הפרשים הדבקהו οἱ ἱππάρχαι κατεδίωξαν αὐτῷ
"
The cavalry pursued them"
 
Joshua 8:18 כידון = κνώδων

κνώδων (lsj)
projecting teeth on the blade of a hunting spear, X.Cyn.10.3, 16, Philostr.Im.1.28; ξίφους διπλοῖ κ., i.e. a two-edged sword (cf. Sch.), S.Ant.1233: sg., “φασγάνου κνώδοντιIG14.1374.11; κνώδων alone, = sword, S.Aj.1025, Lyc.466, 1109, 1434. (Cf. Lith. kándu 'bite').

1 Samuel 17:6 And he had greaves of brass upon his legs,

κνημίς מצחה greave

Greaves are worn around the legs therefore מצחה does not come from מצח "forehead"

μέτωπον מצח the space between the eyes, brow, forehead

1 Samuel 17:6 - a target of brass between his shoulders.
~ כידון נחשת בין כתפיו

כתף κάτωμος low in the shoulder or forequarter

ὁπλίτης "heavy-armed" > גלית "Goliath"

So much Greek borrowed into Biblical Hebrew
 
Ham (חם) being the same as חם "hot, warm", then it is the same as καῦμα (kaûma). This is confirmed in Genesis 8:22, in which חם is καῦμα in the Septuagint.

In Genesis 38:13 חמיך means "thy father in law", so the Greek is γαμβρός σου. cf. γάμος

This word lacks etymology or root and Strong's incorrectly assigns חומה "wall" to it, which is yet another word of Greek origin, from αἱμασιά (haimasiā́) "wall of dry stones".

All the Hebrew belong to me.
 
Leviticus 2:1 - תקריב קרבן מנחה "will offer a meat offering"

All these words are Hellenic.
הקריב = καθιερεύω; to sacrifice, offer
קרבן = ἱερεῖον; victim, animal for sacrifice
מנחה = ἀνάθημα; a votive offering

So תקריב קרבן מנחה means "offer an animal sacrifice as a votive offering".

So the Lexicon yet again is in error, it assigned הקריב to קרב "approach, draw near" which is πελάζω
and also מנחה from an unused root, so no explanation is given for this word in strong',
 
Judges 16:13 - מחלפות ראשי "locks of my head" = πλόκαμοι κρατός

So πλόκαμος is a word ending in -μος equating with מ־ (πλόκαμος = מחלפה), so the root חלף must be πλέκω "to plait, twine", but this verb is unused in Biblical Hebrew.

The word מחלפים appears in Ezra 1:9 and one of the definitions of πλόκαμος is wicker basket.

The verb חלף change is ἀλλάσσω ; to make other than it is, to change, alter
 
Mark 1:3 is a copy-paste of the Greek translation of Isaiah 40:3, so by producing a fresh translation into Greek, the words are entirely different.

Isaiah 40:3
- פנו דרך יהוה ישרו בערבה מסלה לאלהינו
- κενοῦ τρόπον Διός ὀρθοῦ ἐν ἐρημίᾳ ὁδευομένη τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν
"Clear the way of the Lord, Raise up in the wilderness a thoroughfare for our God"


Mark 1:3
Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ

Isaiah 40:3 (LXX)
ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου εὐθείας ποιεῗτε τὰς τρίβους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν
 
Plasma, from πλάσμα becomes מפלץ

πλάσμα מפלץ

So in 2 Chronicles 15:16 את־מפלצתה means moulded, image or figure. But the verb פלץ "to shudder, tremble" is πλήσσω and not πλάσσω that derives πλάσμα.
 
In Numbers 33:52 משכית means pictures, this word as no valid root, this is yet another word of Greek origin, from σχῆμα; form, shape, figure

σχῆμα משכית
 
In Numbers 33:52 משכית means pictures, this word as no valid root,
BD&B Lexicon, page 967, connects this word (which Strong assigned 4906) to Strong's 7914, imagery, and indicates that this word, with somewhat different spellings, appears at Lev 26:1, Ezek 8:12, and Prov 25:11.

I must admit I cannot find the root in Mandelkern's Concordance or the Englishman's Concordance, but, as this has many spellings, it may be listed under an unfamiliar form.
 
BD&B Lexicon, page 967, connects this word (which Strong assigned 4906) to Strong's 7914, imagery, and indicates that this word, with somewhat different spellings, appears at Lev 26:1, Ezek 8:12, and Prov 25:11.

I must admit I cannot find the root in Mandelkern's Concordance or the Englishman's Concordance, but, as this has many spellings, it may be listed under an unfamiliar form.

The Hebrew bible uses tons of words relating to images, all from the Greek language.

εἴδωλον גלול, אליל an image, a phantom
ψιλός פסל stripped bare (ψ is a double letter i.e פס)
σέβασμα מצבה an object of awe or worship
σχῆμα משכית form, shape, figure
εἰκαστός שקוץ apprehended through an image
ἄγαλμα, ἀπείκασμα צלם portrait, picture, image
τρίπους תרפים tripod, placed as votive gifts in temples, esp. in that of Apollo at Delphi
ἐπῳδή אפוד charm
εἰκών, ξόανον כיון a likeness, image, portrait / image carved of wood
σμίλευμα סמל a piece of carved work
γλύμμα מקלע engraved figure
φᾶσις תבנית appearance, of stars (φαίνω/בני + σις/-ת)
φάσμα מופה apparition, phantom, appearance, phenomenon"
ζῷον מחיה living being, in art, figure, image"
πλάσμα מפלצה anything formed, image, figure"

cf.

Herodotus 1.131
As to the customs of the Persians, I know them to be these. It is not their custom to make and set up statues and temples and altars

Tacitus 2.78
Between Judaea and Syria is Mount Carmel; this is the name both of the mountain and the Deity. They have no image of the god nor any temple; the tradition of antiquity recognises only an altar and its sacred association.
 
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In Hosea 4:2 the initial אלה (ala) is translated "by swearing" and in the Septuagint, this is ἀρὰ (ara).
cf. ἀρειή 'cursing, threatening

Malachi 3:9 במארה אתם נארים "You are cursed with a curse"
κατάραμα מארה curse
ἀρώμενοι נארים cursings -נ = mp

*אלה (ala) is the lisping way of pronouncing ארה (ara) = ἀρὰ (ara), ἀρή (are).
cf. λαβδακισμός, the defective pronunciation of ρ (r, “rho”) as λ (l, “lambda”)

Ecclesiastes 10 מלך אל־תקלל "curse not the king" = βασιλέα μὴ καταράσῃ
καταράομαι
קלל all down curses upon

Numbers 23:8 אקב "I curse"
εὔξομαι אקב

The verb εὔχομαι defaults to the middle in ancient Greek, so the counterpart is נקב (for אקב־לי)

Numbers 1:17
נקבו בשמות "expressed by their names" =
κεῖνται ἐν ὀνόματι
κεῖμαι נקב ; of names, οὔνομα κεῖται the name is given
 
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It would be nice to be able to find the Artscroll Tanakh translation of Daniel online because it's one of the most precise and closest to the Hebrew that I could find. The other two most precise translations from Hebrew have been the NET and KJV, which are both online.
 
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