All I would add is this, from Marian Hillar "From Logos to Trinity" Chp 1.
Re Stoic Logos: "But this Greek, metaphysical concept of the Logos is in sharp contrast
to a concept of a personal God typical in Hebrew thought. Everything was
determined by preexisting conditions, and it was believed that everything
that happens was the best possible result of these conditions; thus, God, the
Logos, Providence, aim at the good. This was an optimistic philosophy that
oriented life in accord with Nature and the development of virtues, that is, the
perfection of human nature, which is reason.The moral ideal thus became a
virtuous person who knows the good and acts in accord with it following the
" The Stoic concept of the Logos can be summarized as follows:
1. Logos is the power or principle that shapes and creates all things from
itself, in the final analysis. Logos is immanent in the existing world.
2. According to Stoic metaphysics, to exist something must have body;
also, if mind were incorporeal, then it would not be capable of any
3. Logos, the power or principle that unifies and gives coherence to the
world, was metaphysically associated with the artistic, self-moving, and
generative fire by Zeno and Cleanthes, and from Chrysippus with fire
and air – pneuma. This was done through analogy with the living
creatures, which required, in accordance with the physiological theories
of the epoch, heat and breath, that is, hot breath as a vivifying agent.
Thus, pneuma became the vehicle of the Logos.
4. It is the Soul of the world, Mind of Nature, Nature, God. Nature is
an artistic or creative fire, and thus God is the seminal Logos of the
5. The pneuma, though corporeal, is not matter itself. Pneuma, unlike other
elements, pervades the universe and establishes the individual parts of
it. It gives coherence and holds together other elements, unites the
center of the universe with its circumference, and prevents the universe
from collapsing under the heavy pull of its heavy constituents (pneuma
does not have weight).
6. This principle is manifested as Natural Law, Necessity, and Destiny. It
functions at the macrocosmic and microcosmic levels as God, Providence,
Craftsman, and the “right reason” at the moral level.
7. It operates in plants, animals, and man manifested respectively as a
particular nature physis, “soul,” or “logos.” The human “soul” is thus
an “offshoot” of the divine Logos. If breath and heat are necessary
according to physiological doctrines of the epoch, then the human soul
is, according to Zeno, a “hot breath." "
And from Chp 2.
"The Hebrew Concept of davar (logos)
In the Septuagint (designated later as LXX) version of the Old Testament, the
term logos (Hebrew davar) was used frequently to describe God’s utterances
(Gen. 1:3, 6, 9; 3:9, 11; Ps. 32:9), God’s action (Zech. 5:1–4; Ps. 106:20; 147:15), or
spoken voice, and messages of prophets by means of which God communicated
his will to his people (Jer. 1:4–19; 2:1–7; Ezek. 1:3; Amos 3:1). Usually it is
expressed in the form “And God said” (καὶ εἶπεν ὁ θεὸϚ). It is a translation from
the same Hebrew expression (...). Davar is used there as a figure of
speech designating God’s activity or action. And this is emphasized by using
the verb in the third-person singular (from the Greek λέγῶ or Hebrew rm;a').
In the ancient Near East, it was a widely spread conceptual anthropomorphic
device to express the action of a supreme divinity or a divine principle. The myth
of creation by a spoken word (logos) goes back to the First Dynasty in Egypt,
where we find such stories in the texts entitled Memphis Theology of Creation,
Hymn to Ptah, and Hymn to Ra. Here is probably the beginning of the logos
doctrine in general and especially of the Hebrew logos as it was absorbed in
the creation story. 1 The first principle, Ptah, through his thought and his words,
created or formed everything and brought it into order. Moreover, he not only
creates everything from him but also rules over the world and over humans,
rewarding or punishing them for their behavior.
This Hebrew concept of logos will be invoked in the prologue to the Fourth
Gospel. Here the Hebrew logos will be expressed substantively in the man