Septuagint

Lee Magee

Member
Whoever translated the Septuagint from Hebrew, understood the language more-so then those that created the strong's concordance.

Exodus 12:9 - אל־תאכלו ממנו נא (Eat not of it raw)

Lexicon :: Strong's H4995 - nā'
נָא ; Apparently from נוֹא (H5106) in the sense of harshness from refusal

The Septuagint translates this as οὐκ ἔδεσθε ἀπ αὐτῶν ὠμὸν which concludes that נא is ὠμός.

Numbers 30:5 - ואם־הניא אביה אתה (But if her father disallow her)
LXX ἐὰν δὲ ἀνανεύων ἀνανεύσῃ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτῆς

ἀνανεύω
- throw the head back in token of denial, make signs of refusal
νεύω -
incline in any direction, to nod or beckon, as a sign
*ἀνανεύω as a compound verb therefore homologize with הפעיל

This concludes that נוא is νεύω and ἀνανεύω is הניא, therefore נא "raw" is not from נוא
 

Lee Magee

Member
Exodus 12:9
ἕψω בשל - boil
κρᾶς ראש - head
ἀκρόπους כרע - extremity of leg, i.e. foot
φρυκτός צלי - roasted
 

Lee Magee

Member
They are two spelling of Cypress in ancient Greek. κυπάρισσος (kupárissos) and κυπάριττος (kupárittos), so by comparison, they are also
two spellings in Biblical Hebrew.

Songs 1:17 - ברות κυπάριττος
1 Kings 5:10 - ברוש κυπάρισσος

Notice that the κυ- drops out in Hebrew?

1 Kings 5:10 - ארז ἄρκευθος (árkeuthos) 'Phoenician cedar, Juniperus phoenicea'

Sometimes the Septuagint translates
ארז into κυπάρισσος

Job 40:17
MT. יחפץ זנבו כמו־ארז גידי פחדו ישרגו
LXX. ἔστησεν οὐρὰν ὡς κυπάρισσον τὰ δὲ νεῦρα αὐτοῦ συμπέπλεκται
KJV. He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.

They are semantics problems in these translations.

Correction
יחפץ κουφίζει ; lift up, raise
זנבו στόλον; stump of the tail, in animals
גידי κλάδοι blood-vessels
פחדו ἐπιγουνίδα αὐτοῦ his thigh
ישרגו
ταργανόομαι (ταργάνη) plaited or entwined

Job 40:17
He lifts up his tail like a cedar
The blood vessels in his thigh are entwined
 

Lee Magee

Member
In Job 40:15 בהמות (Behemoth) in the Septuagint is θηρίον "wild animal", but word בהמות comes from βόσκημα; fatted beasts (of sheep, horses, dogs or pigs) opp. θηρίον.

Job 40:23
Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.

The choice word here is ἀρδάνιον (ardánion) 'trough, or water-pot', in fact from the banks of the west-bank the Jordan looks like a trough.

Job 40:23 - can draw up a trough into his mouth
יגיח ירדן = ἐγγίζει ἀρδάνιον

The descriptions in Job suggests the animal is a wild boar.
 

Shoonra

Well-known member
I had thought the behemoth was an unidentified, possibly mythical, animal. The word appears in plural form is used for domesticated cattle or livestock, e.g. Lev 1:2; 11:3; 19:19, and many more, or at least an animal of some kind, which I assumed would be four-footed.

Its one and only appearance in singular form is Job 40:15, which, from eating grass and a mouth that is wide, I had guessed was a hippopotamus.
 

Lee Magee

Member
בהמות (plural) בהמה (singular)

It is plural because it conforms to βόσκημα (chiefly in the plural). Josephus uses this word 27 times in his Antiquitates , always plural.

Josephus - Antiquities of the Jews, 1.311
Jacob also drove away half the cattle (GK. ἐπήγετο δὲ Ἰάκωβος καὶ τῶν βοσκημάτων)
https://lexundria.com/j_aj/1.311/wst

Josephus - Antiquities of the Jews, 1.54
but Abel brought milk, and the first-fruits of his flocks (Gk. Ἄβελος δὲ γάλα καὶ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῶν βοσκημάτων)

Genesis 4:4
Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock (צאנו) and of the fat thereof (מחלבהן)

צאן
= κτῆνος pl. κτήνεα (chiefly in the plural) domestic animals, livestock, flocks and herds.

חלב
1. ἀλείφατος (aleíphatos) ― fat
2. γλάγεος (glágeos) ― milk

Did Abel brought milk or fat?
 

Lee Magee

Member
Job 40:21
צאלים - σχοῖνος ; rush, reed
סתר - συγκρύπτω ; cover up or completely, conceal
בצה - βούτομος ; flowering rush

Job 40:22

ערבי - ὄροφος; reed used for thatching houses, described as λαχνήεις

These descriptions don't suggests a very large animal
 

Lee Magee

Member
Jerubbaal יר־בעל
Jeroboam ירב־עם
J
erubbesheth יר־בשת

2 Samuel 11:21
MT - Who smote Abimelech the son of Jerubbesheth (ירבעל)
LXX - Who smote Abimelech the son of Jerobaal (Ιεροβααλ)

What is the correct name? Jerubbesheth or Jerobaal.

One of the meanings of בעל is πόσις "spouse", so ־בעל is interpreted as πόσεως (of the spouse) which is transliterated into Hebrew as ־בשת
and a synonym of πόσις is γαμέτης which is ־עם.

2 Samuel 9:6 - Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan
1 Chronicles 8:34 - Meribbaal son of Jonathan

What is the correct name? Mephibosheth or Meribbaal?

Herodotus 7.98
After the admirals, the most famous of those on board were these: from Sidon, Tetramnestus son of Anysus; from Tyre, Matten son of Siromus; from Aradus, Merbalus son of Agbalus; from Cilicia

Herodotus records a Phoenician named Merbalus (Μέρβαλος), which concludes Meribbaal is the original name, so why did it change into Mephibosheth? Because Merbalus (Μέρβαλος) means περί ἀβέλιου and περί is often replaced by ἀμφί hence ἀμφί ἀβέλιου

ἀμφί ἀβέλιου > מפיבעל > ἀμφί πόσεως > מפיבשת

εἴρην ἀβέλιου Young man of Baal (Sun-God) / as a gift to the parents of the bearer ”
Jerubbaal יר־בעל
Jeroboam ירב־עם
Jerubbesheth יר־בשת
Zerubbabel זרבבל

ἠΐθεος ἀβέλιου Young man of Baal (Sun-God) / as a gift to the parents of the bearer ”
Ishbaal איש בעל
Ishboseth איש בשת

ἠιθέη ἀβέλιου Young woman of Baal (Sun-God) / as a gift to the parents of the bearer ”
Jezebel איזבל
 

Lee Magee

Member
Judges 19:23 - האיש בעל הבית " the man, the master of the house"
- Septuagint ; ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ κύριος τῆς οἰκίας

The correct translation of בעל הבית is πάστας τάς οἰκίας "the owner of the house"

The verbal form of πάστας is πάομαι is the verbal בעל

Jeremiah 3:14 - אנכי בעלתי בכם
= ἐγώγε πέπαμαι ὑμᾶς "I have acquired you"

In this verse, the Septuagint uses κατακυριεύω; gain dominion over, gain possession of
cf. πάομαι; get, acquire, possess

2 Kings 1:8 - איש בעל שער
LXX. ἀνὴρ δασὺς
KJV. hairy man

בעל here is untranslated in King James and Septuagint. בעל is an adjective that modified the noun שער. The Septuagint scribe could have written πολύς δασὺς but adjectives do not modify adjectives. Instead בעל־שער should be translated as one-word, πολύθριξ "with much hair"
or as
πολύτριχος "very hairy, bushy"

Ecclesiastes 10:11 - בעל הלשון

As one word, πολύγλωσσος ; speaking many tongues or languages, an oft-repeated or loud-voiced cry

2 Samuel 5:20 the name of that place Baalperazim (בעל פרצים)

As one word, πολυρραγής ; with many branches, or violent, epithet of a river

Numbers 24:2 Balaam lifted up his eyes
Numbers 24:3 the man whose eyes are open hath said

The eyes of this character is emphasised, for the meaning of the name בלעם is πολυόμματος "many-eyes" (πολύ-ὄμμα)
 

Lee Magee

Member
Isaiah 46:11 קרא ממזרח עיט "calling an eagle from the east"
καλῶν ἀπ᾽ ἀνατολῶν αἰετόν

αἰετός
עיט; eagle, as a standard, of the Persians
ἀίσσω עיט (verb); to move with a quick shooting motion, to shoot, dart, glance.

Xenophon, Cyropedia 7.1.4 - His ensign was a golden eagle
Xenophon Cyropedia 2.4 - An eagle flying up from the east (ἀετὸς δ᾽ ἐπιπτόμενος αἴσιος)

Isaiah 60:1 עליך זרח "risen upon me"
ἐπὶ σὲ ἀνατέταλκεν

Ecclesiastes 1:5 וזרח השמש ובא השמש "The sun rises and the sun sets"
Sept. ἀνατέλλει ὁ ἥλιος καὶ δύνει ὁ ἥλιος

Deuteronomy 11:30 מבוא השמש "the sun goeth down"
Sept. δυσμῶν ἡλίου

δύω (בוא) > δυσμή (מבוא) setting, mostly in pl

βλαστέω (ילד) > βλάστημα (מולדה) offspring, an offshoot
ὄψομαι (חזה) > ὄψανον (מחזה) a vision
ὁράω (ראה) > ὅραμα (מראה) a sight, spectacle, vision during sleep, dream
ῥάπτω (רבד) > ῥάμμα (מרבד) anything sewn or stitched, seam, hem
ὑμνέω (זמר) > ὑμνάριον (מזמור) hymn, ode
μανθάνω (למד) > μάθησις (תלמוד) instruction (μ ν θ = ל מ ד)
 

Lee Magee

Member
συρίζω השריק
1. to whistle, hiss
2. to play the pipe


So in Lamentations 2:15 שרקו is ἐσύρισα in the Septuagint.

βρύχωחרק
gnash or grind the teeth, “τοὺς ὀδόντας βρύχει

Lamentations 2:16
They hiss and gnash the teeth שרקו ויחרקו־שן / Sept. ἐσύρισαν καὶ ἔβρυξαν ὀδόντας

Mark 9:18
gnash with his teeth τρίζει τοὺς ὀδόντας αὐτοῦ,

Why does Mark use τρίζω instead of βρύχω?

Lam 2:16 בלענו = βρογχιάζουσι αὐτήν "We swallowed her up"

בלע βρόγχος → bronchus

Proverbs 19:12 βρυγμῷ λέοντο (LXX) for נהם ככפיר

βρυγμός means biting not roaring, so נהם כפיר should be ἠχή θῆρος.
 

Lee Magee

Member
συρίζω
1. to whistle, hiss → השריק
2. to play the pipe → החציר

2 Chronicles 29:28 - החצצרות מחצצרים
σύριγγες συρίττοντας

חצצר is the same as τίτυρος reed or pipe (cf. τιτύρινος)

σαλπίζω - to sound the trumpet → תקע

1 Kings 1:40 - piped with pipes מחללים בחללים
αὐλούμενοι ἐπὶ αὐλοὺς ?

Job 30:9 אהי להם למלה → εἰμί αὐτοῖς ἐς μελῳδόν "I am a melody to them" ?


1Kings 1:1 Now king David was old and stricken in years
- בא בימים Lxx. προβεβηκὼς ἡμέραις

Ancient Greek uses phrases like "προβεβηκότας τῇ ἡλικίᾳ" (advanced in years)
προ-βαίνω = הת-בוא Root ΒΑ

So Phoenicians and Greeks and similar phrases,
 

Lee Magee

Member
Here is comparison of the LXX and my own Greek translation.

Joshua 13:7 - ועתה חלק את־הארץ הזאת "Now therefore divide this land"
LXX καὶ νῦν μέρισον τὴν γῆν ταύτην
NEW καὶ ἄρτι διαλαγχάνει τάν ἔραν τήνδε

ἄ(ρ)τι עתה now
νῦν נא now
διαλαγχάνω חלק - divide or part by lot

Genesis 15:7 - את־הארץ הזאת לרשתה "to inherit it this land"
LXX τὴν γῆν ταύτην κληρονομῆσαι
NEW τάν ἔραν τήνδε παραδιδόναι

This is one thing i watch for in the Septuagint, when two different Hebrew words receive the same translation.
 
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Lee Magee

Member
Judges 16:22 - the hair of his head began to grow (לצמח)

The Septuagint translates לצמח "to grow" into ἀνατεῗλαι instead of κομήσειν.
- κομάω - let the hair grow long , metaph., of trees, plants (lsj)

Genesis 2:5 - every herb of the field before it grew (יצמח = κομήσει)

Isaiah 47:2 - uncover thy locks (גלי צמתך)
δηλοῦ κόμη σου "reveal your hair"


cognitive readings

Numbers 25:1 וישב ישראל בשטים
ᾤκησεν Ισραηλ ἐν Σκύθῃ "Israel inhabited Scythia"

Numbers 25:3 - ויצמד ישראל לבעל פעור
ἔκαμψεν Ισραηλ Ἀπόλλωνι Φοίβῳ "Israel submitted to Apollo Phoebus
 

Lee Magee

Member
Genesis 4:3 Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering (מנחה) unto the LORD.

The Septuagint translates מנחה into θυσίαν (זבח) burnt-offering, sacrifice. Even though Cain is not burning or sacrificing animals, the proper translation is ἀνάθημα "votive offering".

ἀνάθημα מנחה "votive offering"

Genesis 4:4 the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering (מנחתו)
Here, the Septuagint translates מנחתו into δώροις αὐτοῦ "his votive gift"

δῶρον נדר gift, present, gift of honour, votive gift or offering to a god

Leviticus 1:3 קרבנו "his offering"
The Septuagint translates קרבנו into δῶρον αὐτοῦ "his votive gift"

ἱερεῖον קרבן an animal for sacrifice or slaughter

In 2 Samuel 6, שלמים is translated into peace-offerings, but the translation is θυηλήματα "sacrificial offerings" and as nothing to do with the word peace.

Numbers 7:16 One kid of the goats for a sin offering (לחטאת)
= One he-goat for purification (καθάρσει = לחטאת)
 

Lee Magee

Member
Genesis 1:1
בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ (MT)
ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν (LXX Septuagint)
in principio creavit Deus caelum et terram (Vulgar)

Genesis 1:7

ויעש אלהים את־הרקיע (MT)
καὶ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ στερέωμα (LXX Septuagint)
et fecit Deus firmamentum (Vulgar)

The Septuagint as ἐποίησεν for ברא and ויעש, but Vulgate as two distinct words for these verbs, in fact the Vulgate uses făcĭo for עשה never crĕo.

In Genesis 18:7 "לעשות אתו" means "to dress it" (of food) and Septuagint incorrectly translates ποιῆσαι αὐτό instead of τεῦξαι αὐτό, in accordance with classical Greek, which always uses τεύχω in this context, never ποιέω.

τεύχω (LSJ)
make ready, make —of a cook, of a cook, δεῖπνον τετυκεῖν dress or prepare a meal, 15.77,94 (so in Med., prepare a meal or have it prepared, of those who are to eat it, 20.390; “τετύκοντό τε δαῖταIl.1.467, 2.430; “τεύχοντο δαῖταOd.10.182; “τεύξεσθαι δόρπονIl.19.208; “δόρπον τετύκοντοOd.12.307, cf. 283, al. (the Ep. aor. τετυκεῖν, τετυκέσθαι is used in this sense only)); also “τεῦχε κυκειῶIl.11.624; ἄλφιτα τεύχουσαι preparing meal (by grinding the grain)


Synchronism
ποιέωפעל , τεῦγμαמעשה
τεύχωעשה , ποίημαמפעל
φέρωברא

In Isaiah 43:13 the Septuagint precisely translates אפעל into ποιήσω "I will go".

There is no etymology for τεύχω (teúkhō), this indicates the verb came from עשה and the real homologue is ἔργνυμι and ἐργάζομαι and the evidence is in
Exodus 28:39 in which מעשה is translated into needlework which the Septuagint translates into ἔργον (מעשה).

ἐργάζομαι - work a material
ἔργον - of women's work, weaving

2 Kings 23:7
the women wove (ארגות) hangings for the grove.
~ ἔργα, ἐργαζομένας (ארגות)

Vulgate translates ארגות into texo cf. τεύχω < עשה < ἐργάζομαι.

Exodus 28:39 also confirms רקם "needlework" comes from ἔργον
 

Lee Magee

Member
Psalm 78:9
נושקי רומי־קשת armed and carrying bows

1 Chronicles 12:2
נשקי קשת They were armed with bows
בחצים בקשת shooting arrows out of a bow

The verb נשק is τοξάζομαι "shoot with a bow", since τοξάζομαι is mediopassive, the Hebrew counterpart is prefixed with a נ־.
The verb רום is ἐρύω drawing the bowstring at him, Iliad 15.464 ; “. τόξον
The noun קשת is τόξον "bow"
The noun חצים are οἰστοί "arrows"
1 Chronicles 5:18
דרכי קשת "to shoot with bow"

The verb דרך is ἕλκω; to draw (a bow)

Jeremiah 46:8
תפשי דרכי קשת "that handle and bend the bow."

The verb תפש is ἅπτω; touch, handle

Genessi 9:13
את־קשתי נתתי "I do set my bow in the cloud"
~ τόξα θ᾽ Ἡλίου "the sun's darting beam (Euripides, Heracles 1086)

Songs of Solomon 1:2
ישקני מנשיקות Let him kiss me with the kisses

The verb נשק here is instead ἀσπάζομαι "welcome kindly, greet, kiss, embrace" and the noun מנשיק is ἄσπασμα; a greeting, esp. in pl. embraces, kisses.

Psalm 78:21
אש נשקה "A fire was kindled"

The verb נשקה is αἴθω "light up, kindle; Pass. αἴθομαι , burn, blaze

Ezekiel 39:9
השיקו בנשק "burn the weapons"

The initial verb השיק represents the compound καταίθω "burn down, burn to ashes" and the noun נשק for τεῦχος; implements of war, armour, arms.
 
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