^^ comments under the Khan academy presentation.1. Glycolys (occurs in cytoplasm)
(Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD --> 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + heat)
2. Pyruvate Processing
(2 Pyruvate + 2 NAD + 2CoA --> 2 Acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH + heat)
Note.. The 2 carbons from pyruvate make up the acetyl part of acetylCoA. CoA is a big molecule that acts just as a carrier.)
3. Krebs Cycle
(2 AcetylCoA + 6 NAD + 2 FAD + 2 ADP + 2Pi -->
4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 ATP + 2 CoA + heat)
( 10 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 34 ADP + 34 Pi + 6 O2-->
34 ATP + 10 NAD + 2 FAD + heat)
(Using conversion factor: 3 ATP/NADH and 2 ATP /FADH2)
Total ATP production is 38 ATP per glucose.
Some books state 36 ATP per glucose but this occurs in cells that convert the 2 NADHs made in glycolysis into 2 FADH2s when they enter the mitochondria where Krebs cycle and ETC occur. (It is a transporter phenomenon and has nothing to do with using ATP.) If you do the math, you end up with 2 less ATP.
This approach has worked well for over 30 years.
Note2: The NADs and FADs produced in ETC… go back to glycolysis, pyruvate processing or the Krebs Cycle for use as inputs.
Note3: Why do I talk about pyruvate processing?
Because in Fermentation pyruvate is processed to either 2) lactate or 3) ethanol rather than 1) acetyl-CoA. So there are three types of Pyruvate Processing.
Also pyruvate can be produced from other pathways such as fatty acid beta oxidation which can then be converted to acetyl-CoA and fed into the Krebs cycle.
Note 4: Pyruvate vs Pyruvic acid?
Pyruvic acid has an one more hydrogen than pyruvate
Acids are H donors so
Pyruvic acid ---> H+ + pyruvate
So pyruvic acid and pyruvate are not really the same thing.
Note 5: Cristae are the ridges in the inner mitochondrial membrane, not THE inner mitochondrial membrane. Cristae increase the total surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane which allows for more ETC systems per mitochondrion. Inside the inner membrane are protein complexes used by the ETC to pump NADH/FADH2 protons into the intermembrane space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. Also in the inner membrane are the systems (ATP Synthase) used to put P on ADP to make ATP inside the inner membrane due to the passage of protons that were pumped out by the ETC.
The ETC basically creates a battery where there are more protons on the outside than inside of inner membrane. So protons diffuse back to matrix due to proton concentration gradient and relatively negative matrix. So this is an electrochemical gradient driving ATP synthesis
Krebs / citric acid cycle - Bing video
This is more advanced actual science than the Klown Hair lecture youtube series geared for the 4th grader audience. How did Chuck explain this? How did dumb luck develop this systemic evolutionism?
Post the number of enzymes needed for glycolysis & where they originated.