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Placentals evolved from an inflammation response

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  • Placentals evolved from an inflammation response

    And once again, the study of evolution not only ends up providing insights into our human existence but also comes with the potential to help with all those god-abortions that are due to implantation failures.

    "The findings are fascinating, says Gil Mor, a reproductive immunologist at Yale. He hopes they will yield details that ultimately help clinicians to reduce miscarriages and improve implantation rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Although inflammation appears to be necessary during implantation, it’s a leading cause of miscarriage and preterm birth in the second and third trimesters. “We need to find ways to switch from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory states so that women can keep their babies,” Mor says."

    Embryo implantation evolved from an ancestral inflammatory attachment reaction

    Significance

    Our data suggest that implantation in eutherians is derived from an ancestral inflammatory reaction to embryo attachment in the therian ancestor. These results explain the paradoxical role of inflammation at the beginning and the end of pregnancy in humans: Inflammation is necessary for implantation and parturition, but for most of pregnancy, inflammation threatens the continuation of pregnancy. We argue that the role of inflammation during implantation is an ancestral response to the embryo as a foreign body. By changing the way investigators think about implantation, we expect this research to contribute to new ways to study and treat implantation disorders, the most vulnerable step of assisted reproductive technology, in women.

    Abstract

    The molecular changes that support implantation in eutherian mammals are necessary to establish pregnancy. In marsupials, pregnancy is relatively short, and although a placenta does form, it is present for only a few days before parturition. However, morphological changes in the uterus of marsupials at term mimic those that occur during implantation in humans and mice. We investigated the molecular similarity between term pregnancy in the marsupials and implantation in eutherian mammals using the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) as a model. Transcriptomic analysis shows that term pregnancy in the opossum is characterized by an inflammatory response consistent with implantation in humans and mice. This immune response is temporally correlated with the loss of the eggshell, and we used immunohistochemistry to report that this reaction occurs at the materno–fetal interface. We demonstrate that key markers of implantation, including Heparin binding EGF-like growth factor and Mucin 1, exhibit expression and localization profiles consistent with the pattern observed during implantation in eutherian mammals. Finally, we show that there are transcriptome-wide similarities between the opossum attachment reaction and implantation in rabbits and humans. Our data suggest that the implantation reaction that occurs in eutherians is derived from an attachment reaction in the ancestral therian mammal which, in the opossum, leads directly to parturition. Finally, we argue that the ability to shift from an inflammatory attachment reaction to a noninflammatory period of pregnancy was a key innovation in eutherian mammals that allowed an extended period of intimate placentation.
    "Kids & Adults love Fairy Tale Ark exhibit" - Ken Ham

  • #2
    Originally posted by Promethean View Post
    And once again, the study of evolution not only ends up providing insights into our human existence but also comes with the potential to help with all those god-abortions that are due to implantation failures.

    "The findings are fascinating, says Gil Mor, a reproductive immunologist at Yale. He hopes they will yield details that ultimately help clinicians to reduce miscarriages and improve implantation rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Although inflammation appears to be necessary during implantation, it’s a leading cause of miscarriage and preterm birth in the second and third trimesters. “We need to find ways to switch from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory states so that women can keep their babies,” Mor says."

    Embryo implantation evolved from an ancestral inflammatory attachment reaction

    Significance

    Our data suggest that implantation in eutherians is derived from an ancestral inflammatory reaction to embryo attachment in the therian ancestor. These results explain the paradoxical role of inflammation at the beginning and the end of pregnancy in humans: Inflammation is necessary for implantation and parturition, but for most of pregnancy, inflammation threatens the continuation of pregnancy. We argue that the role of inflammation during implantation is an ancestral response to the embryo as a foreign body. By changing the way investigators think about implantation, we expect this research to contribute to new ways to study and treat implantation disorders, the most vulnerable step of assisted reproductive technology, in women.

    Abstract

    The molecular changes that support implantation in eutherian mammals are necessary to establish pregnancy. In marsupials, pregnancy is relatively short, and although a placenta does form, it is present for only a few days before parturition. However, morphological changes in the uterus of marsupials at term mimic those that occur during implantation in humans and mice. We investigated the molecular similarity between term pregnancy in the marsupials and implantation in eutherian mammals using the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) as a model. Transcriptomic analysis shows that term pregnancy in the opossum is characterized by an inflammatory response consistent with implantation in humans and mice. This immune response is temporally correlated with the loss of the eggshell, and we used immunohistochemistry to report that this reaction occurs at the materno–fetal interface. We demonstrate that key markers of implantation, including Heparin binding EGF-like growth factor and Mucin 1, exhibit expression and localization profiles consistent with the pattern observed during implantation in eutherian mammals. Finally, we show that there are transcriptome-wide similarities between the opossum attachment reaction and implantation in rabbits and humans. Our data suggest that the implantation reaction that occurs in eutherians is derived from an attachment reaction in the ancestral therian mammal which, in the opossum, leads directly to parturition. Finally, we argue that the ability to shift from an inflammatory attachment reaction to a noninflammatory period of pregnancy was a key innovation in eutherian mammals that allowed an extended period of intimate placentation.
    And another easy write up.
    The key to a successful pregnancy: a tamed immune reaction

    "Kids & Adults love Fairy Tale Ark exhibit" - Ken Ham

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