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Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

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  • Promethean
    started a topic Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    As revealed in previous threads of mine, scales, hair and feathers have a common evolutionary origin.as do mammary glands. This paper and a few others help elucidate the molecular evolution of feathers. Specifically looking to seen when feathers - rather the keratin - changed to accommodate flight. They find the Anchiornis had both alpha and beta keratin. Modern birds are mostly populated by beta.


    The molecular evolution of feathers with direct evidence from fossils

    Significance


    During the dinosaur–bird transition, feathers of bird ancestors must have been molecularly modified to become biomechanically suitable for flight. We report molecular moieties in fossil feathers that shed light on that transition. Pennaceous feathers attached to the right forelimb of the Jurassic dinosaur Anchiornis were composed of both feather β-keratins and α-keratins, but were dominated by α-keratins, unlike mature feathers of extant birds, which are dominated by β-keratins. Data suggest that the pennaceous feathers of Anchiornis had some, but not all, of the ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of extant feathers, and may not yet have attained molecular modifications required for powered flight. Abstract


    Dinosaur fossils possessing integumentary appendages of various morphologies, interpreted as feathers, have greatly enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary link between birds and dinosaurs, as well as the origins of feathers and avian flight. In extant birds, the unique expression and amino acid composition of proteins in mature feathers have been shown to determine their biomechanical properties, such as hardness, resilience, and plasticity. Here, we provide molecular and ultrastructural evidence that the pennaceous feathers of the Jurassic nonavian dinosaur Anchiornis were composed of both feather β-keratins and α-keratins. This is significant, because mature feathers in extant birds are dominated by β-keratins, particularly in the barbs and barbules forming the vane. We confirm here that feathers were modified at both molecular and morphological levels to obtain the biomechanical properties for flight during the dinosaur–bird transition, and we show that the patterns and timing of adaptive change at the molecular level can be directly addressed in exceptionally preserved fossils in deep time.

  • Promethean
    replied
    Originally posted by marke View Post

    My assessment of the validity of the biased paper in red.
    Ridiculous religious nonsense in red

    Leave a comment:


  • marke
    replied
    Originally posted by Promethean View Post
    As revealed in previous threads of mine, scales, hair and feathers have a common evolutionary origin (unsupported assumption #1).as do mammary glands. This paper and a few others help elucidate the molecular evolution of feathers (unsupported assumption #2). Specifically looking to seen when feathers - rather the keratin - changed to accommodate flight (assumption #3). They find the Anchiornis had both alpha and beta keratin. Modern birds are mostly populated by beta.


    The molecular evolution of feathers with direct evidence from fossils

    Significance


    During the dinosaur–bird transition (assumption #4), feathers of bird ancestors must have been molecularly modified (assumption #5) to become biomechanically suitable for flight. We report molecular moieties in fossil feathers that shed light on that transition. Pennaceous feathers attached to the right forelimb of the Jurassic dinosaur Anchiornis were composed of both feather β-keratins and α-keratins, but were dominated by α-keratins, unlike mature feathers of extant birds, which are dominated by β-keratins. Data suggest that the pennaceous feathers of Anchiornis had some, but not all, of the ultrastructural and molecular characteristics of extant feathers, and may not yet have attained molecular modifications required for powered flight (speculation #1). Abstract


    Dinosaur fossils possessing integumentary appendages of various morphologies, interpreted as feathers, have greatly enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary link (assumption #6) between birds and dinosaurs, as well as the origins of feathers and avian flight (speculation #2). In extant birds, the unique expression and amino acid composition of proteins in mature feathers have been shown to determine their biomechanical properties, such as hardness, resilience, and plasticity. Here, we provide molecular and ultrastructural evidence that the pennaceous feathers of the Jurassic nonavian dinosaur Anchiornis were composed of both feather β-keratins and α-keratins. This is significant, because mature feathers in extant birds are dominated by β-keratins, particularly in the barbs and barbules forming the vane. We confirm here that feathers were modified (assumption #7) at both molecular and morphological levels to obtain the biomechanical properties for flight during the dinosaur–bird transition (speculation #2), and we show that the patterns and timing of adaptive change at the molecular level (assumption #8) can be directly addressed in exceptionally preserved fossils in deep time.
    My assessment of the validity of the biased paper in red.

    Leave a comment:


  • docphin
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post

    [/INDENT]This is not “science”, it is fundamentalismscientism”. By nature, most fundamentalists atheists “worship” the Bible science as the only purveyor of “truth” and when they refer to it, it can apparently in their minds rise to the level of “revelation”. In a very real sense, fundamentalists, “scientists”, as the “priests” of fundamentalism scientism, are freed from the shackles of “wherever the evidence leads” and allowed, ex cathreda, to proclaim where the evidence MUST and indeed WILL lead when they invoke their priestly authority and render their version of reality. And those who have fallen under the spell of fundamentalism scientism are blinded to the obvious disconnect between actual science and fundamentalism scientism when scientific research and study is predisposed to a particular conclusion, regardless of ANY scientific evidence to the contrary.
    Originally posted by HRG View Post
    I wonder about your qualifications to write such an absolute distortion of actual reality and claim to know what is "actual science" and what isn't.
    You know that if you change just a couple of words in what he said, for example,

    “scientism” to “fundamentalism” and,
    “science” to “Bible”

    then he would be accurately describing his own system of religious belief (i.e., unwavering literalism of scripture) and discrediting it in the process. I think that he is projecting his own failed system of belief upon others hoping that everyone is as wrong as he is.

    His tactic of deception is to redefine the evidence for evolution into a religion so that he can reject it (the evidence) as a matter of religious belief (because Christian orthodoxy rejects all religious beliefs but their own). Of course, science is no respector of any religious opinion, it is just the means to the facts in our world.

    Fundamentally, Christian orthodoxy is at war with the facts of our world discovered by science and their only means of combatting the evidence is to redefine science into a religion. By doing so they hope to reduce facts to the same level as religious opinion where it can be batted around on the field of theology along with their superstitions and myths which they accept as historical facts.

    If Jesus flew bodily through the sky into clouds and disappeared into heaven then the world could be six solar days old, and the first Human could have spontaneously formed from mud, despite the evidence to the contrary, right? It is only a matter of religious belief,...so they would want us to think.
    Last edited by docphin; 02-21-19, 07:21 AM.

    Leave a comment:


  • HRG
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post
    Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    [/INDENT]
    This is not “science”, it is “scientism”. By nature, most atheists “worship” science as the only purveyor of “truth” and when they refer to it, it can apparently in their minds rise to the level of “revelation”. In a very real sense, “scientists”, as the “priests” of scientism, are freed from the shackles of “wherever the evidence leads” and allowed, ex cathreda, to proclaim where the evidence MUST and indeed WILL lead when they invoke their priestly authority and render their version of reality. And those who have fallen under the spell of scientism are blinded to the obvious disconnect between actual science and scientism when scientific research and study is predisposed to a particular conclusion, regardless of ANY scientific evidence to the contrary.
    I wonder about your qualifications to write such an absolute distortion of actual reality and claim to know what is "actual science" and what isn't.

    And the heretical term commonly used here for those of us who are predisposed to see design in every facet of earth’s biosphere is “IDiots”. Yet, evolutionists themselves are compelled to admit that “life”, in its myriad forms, gives every impression of having BEEN designed, as in the aforementioned “ANY scientific evidence to the contrary”! Time will certainly eventually reveal who the real idiots are.
    Life forms give impressions of having been designed in the same sense as the Earth gives the impression of standing still with the whole cosmos orbiting around it.

    Leave a comment:


  • cloudsrider
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post
    Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    [/INDENT]This is not “science”, it is “scientism”. By nature, most atheists “worship” science as the only purveyor of “truth” and when they refer to it, it can apparently in their minds rise to the level of “revelation”. In a very real sense, “scientists”, as the “priests” of scientism, are freed from the shackles of “wherever the evidence leads” and allowed, ex cathreda, to proclaim where the evidence MUST and indeed WILL lead when they invoke their priestly authority and render their version of reality. And those who have fallen under the spell of scientism are blinded to the obvious disconnect between actual science and scientism when scientific research and study is predisposed to a particular conclusion, regardless of ANY scientific evidence to the contrary.

    And the heretical term commonly used here for those of us who are predisposed to see design in every facet of earth’s biosphere is “IDiots”. Yet, evolutionists themselves are compelled to admit that “life”, in its myriad forms, gives every impression of having BEEN designed, as in the aforementioned “ANY scientific evidence to the contrary”! Time will certainly eventually reveal who the real idiots are.



    Time has already "revealed who the real idiots are" - the gullible fleecies who support the creIDist flock fleecers. The repeated abysmal failure of creIDists to produce ANYTHING but marketing scams, legal disasters, and pathetic embarrasments like "Dissent", "Expelled", Dover, etc. proves conclusively the utter idiocy of the creIDist political and flock fleecing and totally anti-scientific and antirational magical mystical supernaturalist spiritualist creIDist enterprise.

    Leave a comment:


  • cloudsrider
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post

    By all means excuse me for wasting your time. I was prepared to “talk about molecules” until I discovered that I couldn’t access the entire paper at the link that you posted without a subscription to the website hosting the article. But sensing your obvious interest in molecules, do I have an article for you. And you can access the entire article at the link below. It’s titled: “Model and Laboratory Demonstrations That Evolutionary Optimization Works Well Only If Preceded by Invention--Selection Itself Is Not Inventive”

    https://www.researchgate.net/publica..._Not_Inventive

    Below is an abstract of the article.
    Abstract
    Since biological inventions only benefit their possessors after they work, their origins cannot be attributed to their selective effects. One proposed solution to this conundrum is that selection perfects activities that already existed in rudimentary form before they became beneficial. An example of this idea for protein origins is the promiscuity hypothesis, which claims that minor aberrant side-reactions in enzymes can be evolutionary starting points for proficient new enzymes. Another example—the junk hypothesis—claims that proteins arising from accidental expression of non-genic DNA may likewise have slight activities that, through evolutionary optimization, lead to proficient enzymes. Here, we tested these proposals by observing how the endpoint of simple evolutionary optimization depends on the starting point. Beginning with optimization of protein-like constructs in the Stylus computational model, we compared promiscuous and junk starting points, where design elements specific to the test function were completely absent, to a starting point that retained most elements of a good design (mutation having disrupted some). In all three cases, evolutionary optimization improved activities by a large factor. The extreme weakness of the original activities, however, meant even large improvements could be inconsequential. Indeed, the endpoint was itself a proficient design only in the case where this design was largely present from the outset. Laboratory optimization of ampicillin-resistance proteins derived from a natural β-lactamase produced similar results. Our junk protein here was a deletion mutant that some-how confers weak resistance without the original catalytic mechanism (much of the active site having been lost). Evolutionary optimization was unable to improve that mutant. In contrast, a comparably weak mutant that retained the active site surpassed the natural β-lactamase after six rounds of selection. So, while mutation and selection can improve the proficiency of good designs through small structural adjustments, they seem unable to convert fortuitous selectable activities into good design
    Below are professional bios of the authors. They’ve had numerous papers published in “The Journal of Molecular Biology”. And, as you can see, they are highly credentialed experts in their field. Enjoy!
    Douglas Axe
    is the director of Biologic Institute and author of Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed (HarperOne). His research uses both experiments and computer simulations to examine the functional and structural constraints on the evolution of proteins and protein systems. After a Caltech PhD, he held postdoctoral and research scientist positions at the University of Cambridge, the Cambridge Medical Research Council Centre, and the Babraham Institute in Cambridge. His work and ideas have been featured in many scientific journals, including the Journal of Molecular Biology, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and Nature, and in such books as Signature in the Cell and Darwin’s Doubt by Stephen Meyer.

    Ann Gauger
    is a senior research scientist at Biologic Institute. Her work uses molecular genetics and genomic engineering to study the origin, organization and operation of metabolic pathways. She received a BS in biology from MIT, and a PhD in developmental biology from the University of Washington, where she studied cell adhesion molecules involved in Drosophila embryogenesis. As a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard she cloned and characterized the Drosophila kinesin light chain. Her research has been published in Nature, Development, and the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
    Gauger - the Discotute shill of "blue screened" into stock lab footage fame, because the "Biologic Institute" Axe pretends to direct doesnt actually exist except as a flock fleecing marketing scam. None of their limited legitimate publications hint at creIDism. Only after they abandoned real science and prostituted themselves to the Disco ministry did they preach creIDism.
    Last edited by cloudsrider; 02-20-19, 10:28 AM.

    Leave a comment:


  • cloudsrider
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post

    You have truth staring you in the face and yet remain utterly oblivious to it. “Often” life appears to be more “effectively” designed than if created by man??? The function, beauty, complexity, wonder and dare I say perfection of living creatures far surpasses ANYTHING that man is capable of. And it most assuredly surpasses anything that random, undirected processes of chemistry and time could ever come remotely near to producing. And only a fool could think otherwise.
    Yes your use of "perfection" proves utter faithist ignorance of actual biology. If humans are designed, the designer is obviously anything but intelligent. Human spines, kidney suspension, retinas, eye muscles, knees, broken vitamin C gene, laryngial nerve, blood types where mothers kill embryos, etc etc are just stupid as design, make perfect sense as evolutionary adequate adaptations of ancestral features. You really have no clue what youre talking about - Good preaching..

    Leave a comment:


  • tiburon
    replied
    Originally posted by Nouveau View Post

    So many weasel words and speculation.

    God didn't read any of your mess before building complete birds, airworthy from the beginning.
    The shapes were for reduced drag coefficients. Folding wings, Retracting landing gear. Proper propulsion. Compact design launched from eggs.

    The weight/loads/propulsion factors just right.

    Bird brains pre loaded with migration software. Software to follow thermals for lift.

    God did not need a wind tunnel for a design group.

    God used great engineering principles for feather location. He placed feather pointing aft on the tail edge of the wing structure.

    Your biochemical "discussion"shows God knew more than yu'all about growing wings.

    If you grew feathers from your bingo wings, you still could never fly.

    Praise the LORD

    Our aviation industry totally relies on knocking off aeronautical engineering concepts from Birds.

    Sailboat propulsion systems knock off God's creation. Sailboats copy leach, luff foot and batten principles from avian wings.
    God knows no more than the people who invented him.

    Leave a comment:


  • HRG
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post

    You have truth staring you in the face and yet remain utterly oblivious to it. “Often” life appears to be more “effectively” designed than if created by man??? The function, beauty, complexity, wonder and dare I say perfection of living creatures far surpasses ANYTHING that man is capable of. And it most assuredly surpasses anything that random, undirected processes of chemistry and time could ever come remotely near to producing. And only a fool could think otherwise.
    Argument by incredulity, not taking into account imperfections like pseudogenes or the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Leave a comment:


  • Arkycharlie
    replied
    Originally posted by cloudsrider View Post
    … and actual scientists understand that massively parallel and iterative vary/select mechanistic processes produce strong utterly natural "design" - often much more effectively than actual intelligent designers.
    You have truth staring you in the face and yet remain utterly oblivious to it. “Often” life appears to be more “effectively” designed than if created by man??? The function, beauty, complexity, wonder and dare I say perfection of living creatures far surpasses ANYTHING that man is capable of. And it most assuredly surpasses anything that random, undirected processes of chemistry and time could ever come remotely near to producing. And only a fool could think otherwise.

    Leave a comment:


  • Arkycharlie
    replied
    Originally posted by Promethean View Post
    You waste my time. It's "Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils" unless you talk about molecules don't bother
    By all means excuse me for wasting your time. I was prepared to “talk about molecules” until I discovered that I couldn’t access the entire paper at the link that you posted without a subscription to the website hosting the article. But sensing your obvious interest in molecules, do I have an article for you. And you can access the entire article at the link below. It’s titled: “Model and Laboratory Demonstrations That Evolutionary Optimization Works Well Only If Preceded by Invention--Selection Itself Is Not Inventive”

    https://www.researchgate.net/publica..._Not_Inventive

    Below is an abstract of the article.
    Abstract
    Since biological inventions only benefit their possessors after they work, their origins cannot be attributed to their selective effects. One proposed solution to this conundrum is that selection perfects activities that already existed in rudimentary form before they became beneficial. An example of this idea for protein origins is the promiscuity hypothesis, which claims that minor aberrant side-reactions in enzymes can be evolutionary starting points for proficient new enzymes. Another example—the junk hypothesis—claims that proteins arising from accidental expression of non-genic DNA may likewise have slight activities that, through evolutionary optimization, lead to proficient enzymes. Here, we tested these proposals by observing how the endpoint of simple evolutionary optimization depends on the starting point. Beginning with optimization of protein-like constructs in the Stylus computational model, we compared promiscuous and junk starting points, where design elements specific to the test function were completely absent, to a starting point that retained most elements of a good design (mutation having disrupted some). In all three cases, evolutionary optimization improved activities by a large factor. The extreme weakness of the original activities, however, meant even large improvements could be inconsequential. Indeed, the endpoint was itself a proficient design only in the case where this design was largely present from the outset. Laboratory optimization of ampicillin-resistance proteins derived from a natural β-lactamase produced similar results. Our junk protein here was a deletion mutant that some-how confers weak resistance without the original catalytic mechanism (much of the active site having been lost). Evolutionary optimization was unable to improve that mutant. In contrast, a comparably weak mutant that retained the active site surpassed the natural β-lactamase after six rounds of selection. So, while mutation and selection can improve the proficiency of good designs through small structural adjustments, they seem unable to convert fortuitous selectable activities into good design
    Below are professional bios of the authors. They’ve had numerous papers published in “The Journal of Molecular Biology”. And, as you can see, they are highly credentialed experts in their field. Enjoy!
    Douglas Axe
    is the director of Biologic Institute and author of Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed (HarperOne). His research uses both experiments and computer simulations to examine the functional and structural constraints on the evolution of proteins and protein systems. After a Caltech PhD, he held postdoctoral and research scientist positions at the University of Cambridge, the Cambridge Medical Research Council Centre, and the Babraham Institute in Cambridge. His work and ideas have been featured in many scientific journals, including the Journal of Molecular Biology, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and Nature, and in such books as Signature in the Cell and Darwin’s Doubt by Stephen Meyer.

    Ann Gauger
    is a senior research scientist at Biologic Institute. Her work uses molecular genetics and genomic engineering to study the origin, organization and operation of metabolic pathways. She received a BS in biology from MIT, and a PhD in developmental biology from the University of Washington, where she studied cell adhesion molecules involved in Drosophila embryogenesis. As a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard she cloned and characterized the Drosophila kinesin light chain. Her research has been published in Nature, Development, and the Journal of Biological Chemistry.


    Leave a comment:


  • cloudsrider
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post
    Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    [/INDENT]This is not “science”, it is “scientism”. By nature, most atheists “worship” science as the only purveyor of “truth” and when they refer to it, it can apparently in their minds rise to the level of “revelation”. In a very real sense, “scientists”, as the “priests” of scientism, are freed from the shackles of “wherever the evidence leads” and allowed, ex cathreda, to proclaim where the evidence MUST and indeed WILL lead when they invoke their priestly authority and render their version of reality. And those who have fallen under the spell of scientism are blinded to the obvious disconnect between actual science and scientism when scientific research and study is predisposed to a particular conclusion, regardless of ANY scientific evidence to the contrary.

    And the heretical term commonly used here for those of us who are predisposed to see design in every facet of earth’s biosphere is “IDiots”. Yet, evolutionists themselves are compelled to admit that “life”, in its myriad forms, gives every impression of having BEEN designed, as in the aforementioned “ANY scientific evidence to the contrary”! Time will certainly eventually reveal who the real idiots are.



    Where "scientism" is the dying gasp of shamanistic flock fleecers faced with the death of magicalism in the face of empirical sciences overwhelming success and religious supernaturalisticalisms utter failure to produce anything but rich powerful flock fleecers and their legitimate prey - illeducated and conworthy faithists...
    Yet to present any "scientific evidence to the contrary" from the creIDists, just magical mystical supernaturalistical spiritualistic wooism.... and actual scientists understand that massively parallel and iterative vary/select mechanistic processes produce strong utterly natural "design" - often much more effectively than actual intelligent designers with all the obvious historical baggage of evolution and NONE of the disconnects of creative designers. So the judgement of IDiocy of the purely marketing-ministry (redundant I know) program that IS ALL creIDism has ever been is entirely appropriate. CreIDists do NO actual research (except marketing "research"), no actual science, make no contribution to human knowledge in fact subtract from it with every utterance, just an ongoing campaign to bring on a new dark ages...The best argument for atheism remains the utter intellectual antimatter that is supernaturalistical spiritualistic faithism..
    Yes time will tell as creIDism goes the way of flat earthism, geocentrism, demons causing disease, whitch burning, unless flockies like yourself succeed in burning scientists at the stake and pillaging all modern libraries like you have before....
    Last edited by cloudsrider; 02-20-19, 01:24 AM.

    Leave a comment:


  • Promethean
    replied
    Originally posted by Arkycharlie View Post
    Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    [/INDENT]
    This is not “science”, it is “scientism”.
    You waste my time. It's "Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils" unless you talk about molecules don't bother

    Leave a comment:


  • Arkycharlie
    replied
    Molecular evolution of feathers from fossils

    Originally posted by Promethean View Post
    AS REVEALED in previous threads of mine, scales, hair and feathers have a common evolutionary origin.as do mammary glands. This paper and a few others help elucidate the molecular evolution of feathers. Specifically looking to seen when feathers - rather the keratin - changed to accommodate flight. They find the Anchiornis had both alpha and beta keratin. Modern birds are mostly populated by beta.
    During the dinosaur–bird transition, feathers of bird ancestors MUST HAVE BEEN molecularly modified to become biomechanically suitable for flight. We report molecular moieties in fossil feathers that shed light on that transition. Pennaceous feathers attached to the right forelimb of the Jurassic dinosaur Anchiornis were composed of both
    This is not “science”, it is “scientism”. By nature, most atheists “worship” science as the only purveyor of “truth” and when they refer to it, it can apparently in their minds rise to the level of “revelation”. In a very real sense, “scientists”, as the “priests” of scientism, are freed from the shackles of “wherever the evidence leads” and allowed, ex cathreda, to proclaim where the evidence MUST and indeed WILL lead when they invoke their priestly authority and render their version of reality. And those who have fallen under the spell of scientism are blinded to the obvious disconnect between actual science and scientism when scientific research and study is predisposed to a particular conclusion, regardless of ANY scientific evidence to the contrary.

    And the heretical term commonly used here for those of us who are predisposed to see design in every facet of earth’s biosphere is “IDiots”. Yet, evolutionists themselves are compelled to admit that “life”, in its myriad forms, gives every impression of having BEEN designed, as in the aforementioned “ANY scientific evidence to the contrary”! Time will certainly eventually reveal who the real idiots are.




    Leave a comment:

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