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The Missing Cholam

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  • The Missing Cholam

    When Steven Avery was here and we had civil conversation, he shared several pieces of the Yehovah/Jehovah argumentation with me. One thing was a video interview of Nehemia Gordon talking about the motivations that the Masoretes might have for leaving off the cholam on forms of the name יהוה.

    I just completed a long look at the Aleppo Codex in which I recorded every instance of אֲדֹנָי (Adonai) as a name of God and how it is pointed in that document. I wanted to share my results with you. It turns out that 97% of relevant occurrences (that is, 356 out of 3‎6‎7 instances) have no cholam (אֲדנָי). Only 3% represent the full vocalization (אֲדֹנָי).

    I'm now curious about the numbers for the full vocalization of יְהוָֹה (as opposed to יְהוָה). The vast majority are missing the cholam, but I don't know what the statistics might be.

    Additionally, I found only one instance with chataf-segol in יֱהוִֹה in combination with אדני.

    There was also one instance of יהוה representing אֱלֹהִים and missing the cholam (יְהוִה) in Ezekiel 25:3.

    EDIT Image violation: Only for super members
    Last edited by Mod8; 02-06-19, 09:50 AM.
    I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

  • #2
    And this is אֲדנָי יֱהוִֹה as it appears in Zeph 7:1.
    EDIT Image violation: Only for super members
    Last edited by Mod8; 02-06-19, 09:50 AM.
    I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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    • #3
      Excellent stuff, Jameson (will we be expecting an update to "Jehovah Rants" sometime soon? ).

      Of the 11 instances where the Aleppo Codex has אֲדֹנָי, are they located in any specific book, or dotted around? Is there anything in the verses that could explain why only these 11 places have אֲדֹנָי?

      Will you be checking all these places on the Leningrad Codex as well (which I believe is a bit harder to find images of - https://archive.org/details/Leningrad_Codex)?

      I mean www.tanach.us has the Leningrad Codex in HTML form; but I prefer checking images rather than someone else's transcription (which could be wrong).

      Comment


      • #4
        In the Yemini( original) pronunciation אֲדֹנָי and אֲדנָי sound virtually identical .

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by John Milton View Post
          In the Yemini( original) pronunciation אֲדֹנָי and אֲדנָי sound virtually identical .
          LOL - Keep it up.
          I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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          • #6
            Originally posted by S Walch View Post
            Excellent stuff, Jameson (will we be expecting an update to "Jehovah Rants" sometime soon? ).

            Of the 11 instances where the Aleppo Codex has אֲדֹנָי, are they located in any specific book, or dotted around? Is there anything in the verses that could explain why only these 11 places have אֲדֹנָי?

            Will you be checking all these places on the Leningrad Codex as well (which I believe is a bit harder to find images of - https://archive.org/details/Leningrad_Codex)?

            I mean www.tanach.us has the Leningrad Codex in HTML form; but I prefer checking images rather than someone else's transcription (which could be wrong).
            Five of the eleven instances are on the same page of Psalms. I would surmise that that page was "corrected" to darken the ink, given that many pages of Psalms are highly faded. My guess is that the word received a cholam on the page as an attempt at clean-up and clarification of the text. That would bring us to six other instances. I don't see any pattern. It is random and unpredictable.

            I have a copy of the Leningrad Codex, but it's a PDF that doesn't save your browsing position or have any type of location index. I used aleppoxcodex.org for most of the text. There were four or five pages missing from the text, which I found manually on a PDF copy.
            I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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            • #7
              Originally posted by Jameson View Post

              LOL - Keep it up.
              Itís true.Donít you know that ?

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by Jameson View Post
                Five of the eleven instances are on the same page of Psalms. I would surmise that that page was "corrected" to darken the ink, given that many pages of Psalms are highly faded. My guess is that the word received a cholam on the page as an attempt at clean-up and clarification of the text.
                Interesting. Certainly plausible as well, especially as removing these five leaves just six instances in the entirety of the Tanakh.

                That would bring us to six other instances. I don't see any pattern. It is random and unpredictable.
                Please grant the verse list when you have time

                I have a copy of the Leningrad Codex, but it's a PDF that doesn't save your browsing position or have any type of location index. I used aleppoxcodex.org for most of the text. There were four or five pages missing from the text, which I found manually on a PDF copy.
                I do know the guys in charge of www.tanach.us are really pedantic at making sure it is a perfect edition of an electronic Leningrad Codex, so that should be okay to check.

                Not quite sure how good their search function is on the website (if indeed it even has one).

                Comment


                • #9
                  Actually, it was from Ezekiel rather than Psalms. I was up all night last night working on this, and for whatever reason I had it in my mind that these specific occurrences were in the Psalms. I just checked my list, and they are from Ezekiel 28-29. The complete list of forms with cholam is:
                  Psalms 130:6
                  Isaiah 9:17
                  Isaiah 22:5
                  Isaiah 28:2
                  Jeremiah 44:26
                  Ezekiel 28:24
                  Ezekiel 28:25
                  Ezekiel 29:3
                  Ezekiel 29:8

                  Ezekiel 33:20
                  Malachi 1:4
                  The specific instances in question are in bold. I've pulled the page that they are found, together with the previous and following pages, and I've highlighted all occurrences of יהוה and אדני יהוה in the text so that you can easily locate them to compare. You can find the PDF here.

                  I looked at tanach.us, and it's an impressive site. It links to the actual folios of the Leningrad Codex, so it will certainly be useful to me in my investigations. Thanks for the link!
                  I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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                  • #10
                    By the way, looking at the Leningrad Codex of Ezekiel 28:24-25 reveals that there they leave off the cholam on יהוה even when it is pointed as אלהים. Interesting! That doesn't happen in the Aleppo Codex.
                    I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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                    • #11
                      Excellent stuff, Jameson. Glad the site recommendation will be of service!

                      Seems to be that there's more than a few places where there's no cholam on יהוה in both the Aleppo/Leningrad Codices.

                      Would take an awful long time to check all 6,828 places (think that's the number dotted around of total instances of יהוה); possibly just checking a chapter or two from each book, noting down the amount of יהוה's with or without the cholam, and than working out an average. Would be a decent start at any rate!

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        I decided to go checking the Dead Sea Scrolls Biblical Manuscripts to see if I could a) find the 11 places intact; and b) see whether they had plene or defective forms in said places.

                        Unfortunately, Jeremiah 44:26, Ezekiel 28:24, 28:25, 29:3, 29:8, 33:20 and Malachi 1:4 aren't extant in the Dead Sea Scrolls, so can't see what the text may've been in those places.

                        As for Psalm 130:6, though technically the verse is extant in 4QPse/11QPsa, they are both fragmentary and neither have אדני extant.

                        Thankfully for Isaiah, we have the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa), and it has all three verses from Isaiah in question extant.

                        In 9:17, the manuscript has the expected plene spelling: אדוני

                        In 22:5, the manuscript again has the expected plene spelling: אדוני

                        In 28:2 however, it has neither the defective אדני nor plene אדוני, but rather has יהוה in its place!

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by S Walch View Post
                          I decided to go checking the Dead Sea Scrolls Biblical Manuscripts to see if I could a) find the 11 places intact; and b) see whether they had plene or defective forms in said places.

                          Unfortunately, Jeremiah 44:26, Ezekiel 28:24, 28:25, 29:3, 29:8, 33:20 and Malachi 1:4 aren't extant in the Dead Sea Scrolls, so can't see what the text may've been in those places.
                          That really is unfortunate.

                          Originally posted by S Walch View Post
                          As for Psalm 130:6, though technically the verse is extant in 4QPse/11QPsa, they are both fragmentary and neither have אדני extant.
                          Just our luck.

                          Originally posted by S Walch View Post
                          Thankfully for Isaiah, we have the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa), and it has all three verses from Isaiah in question extant.

                          In 9:17, the manuscript has the expected plene spelling: אדוני

                          In 22:5, the manuscript again has the expected plene spelling: אדוני

                          In 28:2 however, it has neither the defective אדני nor plene אדוני, but rather has יהוה in its place!
                          There is one instance of the form אדוני in the MT as a name of God. It is in Judges 13:8, as I mentioned above.
                          I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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                          • #14
                            This is that plene form in Judges 13:8.

                            EDIT Image violation: Only for super members
                            Last edited by Mod8; 02-06-19, 09:51 AM.
                            I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              The Leningrad Codex has the same plene form there.

                              I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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