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Exodus 34:14; Exodus 20:5; A Jealous or Zealous God?

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  • Exodus 34:14; Exodus 20:5; A Jealous or Zealous God?

    Exodus 34:14 from the Hebrew Bible:

    14. For you shall not prostrate yourself before another god, because the Lord, Whose Name is "Jealous One," is a jealous God.

    (Question: why does the text say God's name if Jealous one?)

    14 You are never to bow down to another god because Yahweh, being jealous by nature, is a jealous God. (HCSB)

    Exodus 20:5: Hebrew Bible: You shall neither prostrate yourself before them nor worship them, for I, the Lord, your God, am a zealous God, Who visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the third and the fourth generation of those who hate Me,

    HCSB: 5 You must not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the fathers’ sin, to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me,

    Is God a jealous or zealous God according to biblical languages?

    Thank you.


    They will put you out of the synagogue; in fact, the time is coming when anyone who kills you will think they are offering a service to God. John 16:2

  • #2
    Originally posted by George View Post
    Exodus 34:14 from the Hebrew Bible:

    14. For you shall not prostrate yourself before another god, because the Lord, Whose Name is "Jealous One," is a jealous God.

    (Question: why does the text say God's name if Jealous one?)

    14 You are never to bow down to another god because Yahweh, being jealous by nature, is a jealous God. (HCSB)

    Exodus 20:5: Hebrew Bible: You shall neither prostrate yourself before them nor worship them, for I, the Lord, your God, am a zealous God, Who visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the third and the fourth generation of those who hate Me,

    HCSB: 5 You must not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the fathers’ sin, to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me,

    Is God a jealous or zealous God according to biblical languages?

    Thank you.



    JEALOUS - Used of God as NOT BEARING any rival; The Severe avenger of any departure from Himself. (Geseneus' Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon)
    Last edited by Bob Carabbio; 02-07-19, 06:42 PM.

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    • #3
      As the word in both Exo 20:5 and Exo 34:14 (קנא) can mean both, there is likely a good overlap between the two understandings.

      God is both jealous, and zealous.

      As for "name" - the Hebrew word שֵׁם has a variety of different meanings - name, title, renown, designation, reputation etc., - so it's a translators choice really as to which one they use. I would prefer "reputation" as a meaning in Exo 34:14: Yahweh's reputation is as that of a "jealous/zealous God", because unlike the other nations, their gods didn't seem to mind them having more than one.

      Yahweh on the other hand wants no cohort.

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      • #4
        Thank you to all who replied.

        They will put you out of the synagogue; in fact, the time is coming when anyone who kills you will think they are offering a service to God. John 16:2

        Comment


        • #5
          I would take Ex 34:14 as actually saying that YHWH Qanna [יהוה קַנָּא] is a name of God. It reads that "YHWH Qanna is his name; a jealous (qanna) God is he."
          I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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          • #6
            Originally posted by Jameson View Post
            I would take Ex 34:14 as actually saying that YHWH Qanna [יהוה קַנָּא] is a name of God. It reads that "YHWH Qanna is his name; a jealous (qanna) God is he."
            Lol ,"Qanna," it's "Gan-naw" (קַנָּ֣א)

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            • #7
              For George's edification, the gimel is a /g/ and the qof is /q/. The word קנא has qof. More than 95% of Jews in the world pronounce qof as /q/. It's absurd to laugh at such a thing.
              I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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              • #8
                Subtle differences in the texts. How many here have the "Dead Sea Scrolls Bible"? I also have three Jewish Publication Society Bibles and a 14 volume study set. The original may be closer in English to "impassioned", rather than jealous. One passage of note has God saying to Cain that he is responsible and capable to overcome his own sin - after the "fall". Also, in the words to Eve and the Serpent - "seed" is plural - not singular.

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                • #9
                  Originally posted by LouisVL View Post
                  Subtle differences in the texts. How many here have the "Dead Sea Scrolls Bible"?
                  If you're referring to the English translation edition by Abegg, Flint, & Ulrich, then yes, I have that.

                  However you don't need that - I can tell you exactly what the Dead Sea Scrolls say from the manuscripts themselves. You can see them all here.

                  Exodus 34:14 isn't extant in the DSS.
                  Exodus 20:5 is evidenced in one DSS manuscript (1Q Exodus), but only has evidence of the letters [א]להיך א[ל] (those not in brackets), which is "your God, a God..."

                  I also have three Jewish Publication Society Bibles and a 14 volume study set. The original may be closer in English to "impassioned", rather than jealous. One passage of note has God saying to Cain that he is responsible and capable to overcome his own sin - after the "fall". Also, in the words to Eve and the Serpent - "seed" is plural - not singular.
                  If we're referring to Genesis 3:15 here:
                  I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.”

                  Well, the verse isn't extant in the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Hebrew word is זרע in its singular form. So no, seed/offspring is not "plural" - it's singular. Though it can refer to more than one thing, as many singular words do (compare English "sheep, offspring, brood" etc.).


                  Comment


                  • #10
                    In Exodus 34:14, the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) gives only one variant: that the Septuagint (LXX) reads plural (“other gods”) rather than singular (“another god”), but when I check my copy of the LXX, it doesn’t have a plural form.
                    I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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                    • #11
                      My Electronic Edition of Swete reads for Exo 34:14:

                      οὐ γὰρ μὴ προσκυνήσητε θεοῖς ἑτέροις· ὁ γὰρ Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ζηλωτὸν ὄνομα, θεὸς ζηλωτής ἐστιν.

                      Checking the Apparatus, we have:

                      14 θεοις ετεροις] θεω ετερω AF

                      A = Cod. Alexandrinus; F = Cod. Ambrosianus

                      Is your Reader's Edition based on Rahlfs? As that has the reading θεω ετερω as opposed to Swete's θεοῖς ἑτέροις.

                      Vaticanus likely has the Swete reading above. I'll try and locate it in the C. Vaticanus photographs online.

                      Edit:
                      Here: https://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Vat.gr.1209

                      Page 91, bottom of column 1, fourth line from the bottom.
                      Last edited by S Walch; 02-10-19, 04:55 PM. Reason: Vaticanus reference

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                      • #12
                        Yeah, I have Rahlfs. I actually didn't look in the Reader's Edition. I looked in my regular copy of Rahlfs. The Reader's Edition is also based on it, so I don't think it would be different.

                        It reads: οὐ γὰρ μὴ προσκυνήσητε θεῷ ἑτέρῳ· ὁ γὰρ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ζηλωτὸν ὄνομα, θεὸς ζηλωτής ἐστιν.
                        I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Ah, well that explains that then

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                          • #14
                            Originally posted by LouisVL View Post
                            Subtle differences in the texts. How many here have the "Dead Sea Scrolls Bible"? I also have three Jewish Publication Society Bibles and a 14 volume study set. The original may be closer in English to "impassioned", rather than jealous. One passage of note has God saying to Cain that he is responsible and capable to overcome his own sin - after the "fall". Also, in the words to Eve and the Serpent - "seed" is plural - not singular.
                            I don't have a copy of any biblical texts of the DSS, but variants from the DSS are noted in the apparatus of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS), which I have.
                            I have permission to post on the Biblical Languages forum, as per email correspondence with Diane S.

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